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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: uegu- : ugu-, ukus-   'damp, moist; to wet, sprinkle, irrigate; ox'

Semantic Fields: Wet, Damp; Water; Ox, Steer

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: oxa n.masc ox W7/ASD
  ur n.masc urus; (name for) U-rune ASD
Middle English: humour n humor W7
  ox n ox W7
English: aurochs n urus AHD/W7
  humectant n substance promoting moisture retention AHD/W7
  humid adj damp, re: perceptible moisture AHD/W7
  humor n normal functioning body fluid/semifluid AHD/W7
  hygro- pfx moisture, humidity AHD
  ox, oxen n.str domestic bovine mammal(s) AHD/W7
  urus n (extinct) long-horned wild ox W7
  wake n track left by body moving in water AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Dutch: os n ox TLL
Old Saxon: ohso n ox IEW
Old High German: ohso n ox W7
  urohso n aurochs W7
Middle High German: ürochse n aurochs CDC
German: Auerochse n.masc aurochs LRC
  Ochs n.masc ox LRC
N-Germanic  
Runic: *uruz n urus; (name for) U-rune LRC
Old Norse: oxi/uxi n.masc ox KNW
  vok n hole in ice W7
  vokr adj damp W7
Icelandic: uxi n ox ASD
Danish: okse n ox TLL
Swedish: oxe n ox TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: auhsa n ox ASD
Italic  
Latin: humectans, humectantis adj/vb.ptc moistening W7
  humecto, humectare vb to moisten W7
  humectus vb.ptc moist W7
  humeo, humere vb to be moist W7
  humidus adj moist, humid W7
  humor n.fem humor, moisture W7
  uxor, uxoris n.fem wife LRC
Middle French: humeur n.fem humor, fluid W7
French: humide adj damp, humid W7
Hellenic  
Greek: ugrós adj wet, moist, fluid LS

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
pfx=prefix
ptc=participle
str=strong (inflection)
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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