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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. uen-, uenu-   'to love, venerate, strive/wish for'

Semantic Fields: to Love; Love; to Will, Wish

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: guþ-wine n.masc [kenning for] sword, lit. war-friend ASD
  wenan vb to ween W7
  wenian vb to wean W7
  wennan, wenede, wened vb.wk.I to accustom; entertain (joyfully) LRC
  wine n.masc wine: friend ASD
  Winedas prop.n.masc.pl the Wends W7
  wine-dryhten n.masc lit. wine-lord LRC
  wine-mæg n.masc lit. wine-kinsman LRC
  winnan, wann, wunnon, wunnen vb.str to win, toil, strive, struggle W7/ASD
  wunian vb to won, be used to W7
  wyn(n) n.str.fem wynn; (name for) W-rune ASD
  wynsum adj winsome W7
  wyscan vb to wish W7
Middle English: venerealle adj venereal W7
  venerie n venery W7
  venial adj venial W7
  venim/venom n venom W7
  venison n venison W7
  Venus prop.n Venus W7
  wenen vb to wean W7
  wenen vb to ween W7
  winnen vb to win W7
  winsum adj winsome W7
  wisshen vb to wish W7
  woned adj wont W7
  wonen vb to won, be used to W7
  wont adj wont W7
English: banyan n Hindu merchant; East Indian tree AHD/W7
  Déorwine prop.n Rohan knight in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Elfwine prop.n 19th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Éowyn prop.n Rohan shield-maiden heroine in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Folcwine prop.n 14th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Fréawine prop.n 5th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Gléowine prop.n Theoden's minstrel in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Goldwine prop.n 6th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Gúthwinë prop.n Eomer's sword in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Holdwine prop.n epithet for Merry in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Théodwyn prop.n Eowyn's mother in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  vanadium n grayish malleable ductile metal AHD/W7
  Vanir prop.n tribe of gods opposed to Aesir (Norse mythology) AHD
  venerate vb.trans to regard with deference/admiration/reverential respect AHD/W7
  venereal adj re: sexual pleasure/indulgence AHD/W7
  venery n pursuit of sexual pleasure/indulgence AHD/W7
  venery n art/act/practice of hunting AHD/W7
  venial adj pardonable, forgivable AHD/W7
  venison n edible flesh of wild animal AHD/W7
  venom n poison from biting/stinging animal AHD/W7
  Venus prop.n (2nd planet, named for) goddess of love (Roman mythology) AHD/W7
  wanderoo n purple-faced langur AHD/W7
  wean vb.trans to accustom young to food other than mother's milk AHD/W7
  ween vb.trans to suppose, imagine AHD/W7
  Wend prop.n Sorb: Slavic person from areas near German/Polish border LRC
  win, won vb.str to succeed, gain victory in contest AHD/W7
  win n strife, labor; success, victory W2I
  wine n.obs friend, comrade, companion W2I
  winsome adj winning, causing joy/pleasure AHD/W7
  wish vb to crave, have desire for AHD/W7
  won vb.intrans to dwell, abide AHD/W7
  wont adj used, accustomed AHD/W7
  wyn(n) n joy, bliss, delight, pleasure; Runic letter ODE
British English: win vb.trans to dry (e.g. hay) by exposure to air/heat AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: wena vb to ween, think, opine, believe ASD
  winna vb.intrans to win ASD
  wona/wuna vb to dwell, remain ASD
Dutch: wonen vb to dwell, reside LRC
Old Saxon: wanian vb to ween, hope ASD
  wenian/wennian vb to wean, train; fit, prepare ASD
  wini n.masc wine ASD
  winnan vb.intrans to win, strive, suffer ASD
  wonon/wunon vb to won, remain ASD
  wunnea n.fem wynn ASD
  wunsam adj winsome ASD
Old High German: wan(n)en vb to ween, think, believe ASD
  wennen vb to wean, train, habituate ASD
  wini n.masc wine ASD
  Winida prop.n.masc.pl the Wends W7/ASD
  winnan vb.intrans to win, fight, quarrel, struggle W7/ASD
  wonen vb to won, stay, remain, be used to W7/ASD
  wunna/wunni n.fem wynn W7/ASD
  wunni-sam adj winsome, pleasant, agreeable ASD
  wunsken/wunscen vb to wish W7/ASD
German: Wende prop.n Wend W7
  wohnen vb to live, dwell, reside LRC
  Wohnung n.fem dwelling, residence, habitation TLL
  Wonne n.fem wynn LRC
  wünschen vb to wish LRC
N-Germanic  
Runic: *wunjo n wynn; (name for) W-rune LRC
Old Norse: una vb to enjoy, be contented LRC
  Vanadis prop.n Freya: goddess of love/beauty (Norse mytholgy) W7
  vinna vb to win, work, perform LRC
  vinr n.masc wine; patron, leader LRC
  væna vb to ween, hope W7
  væni n.neut expectation LRC
Icelandic: unaðr n.fem joy, delight ASD
  venja vb to wean ASD
  Vindir prop.n.masc.pl the Wends ASD
  vinna vb.intrans to win, work, suffer, withstand ASD
  vinr n.masc wine ASD
  ynði n.fem charm, delight ASD
  oeskja vb to wish ASD
Swedish: vinna vb to win TLL
  våning n dwelling; floor, story TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: *wenjan vb.wk.I to ween, hope, trust, expect GED
  winnan vb.str.III to win, suffer GED
Italic  
Latin: venatio, venationis n.fem hunting LRC
  venatus vb.ptc hunted, having hunted W7
  venenum n.neut drug, poison, magic charm W7
  venereus adj re: charm, sexual desire W7
  veneror, venerari, veneratus vb.dep to honor, venerate LRC
  venia n.fem favor, pardon, indulgence W7
  venor, venari vb.dep to hunt, pursue W7
  Venus, Veneris prop.n.fem Venus LRC
  venus, veneris n.fem love, charm, sexual desire LRC
Vulgar Latin: venimen n.neut venom W7
Late Latin: venialis adj venial, benign, easily forgiven W7
New Latin: vanadium n.neut vanadium W7
Portuguese: banian n banyan: merchant AHD
Old French: veneison n.fem game, hunting; venison W7
  venial adj venial, benign, easily forgiven W7
  venim n.masc venom W7
Middle French: vener vb to hunt W7
  venerie n.fem venery: art of hunting W7
French: vendredi n Friday, lit. Venus' day ODE
Italian: venerdì n Friday, lit. Venus' day ODE
Iranian  
Avestan: vana n forest W7
Indic  
Sanskrit: vana n forest W7
  vanijah n banyan: merchant AHD
  vanara n monkey W7
Gujarati: vaniyo n banyan: merchant AHD
Hindi: baniya n banyan: merchant W7
Sinhalese: vandura n (type of) monkey W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
III=class 3
adj=adjective
dep=deponent
fem=feminine (gender)
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
obs=obsolete
pl=plural (number)
prop=proper
ptc=participle
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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