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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3h. uer-, uer-t-   'to turn, wind, invert'

Semantic Fields: to Turn; to Wind, Wrap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: gwerthyd n spindle, distaff LRC
Old English: inweard adj inward W7
  -wards sfx -ward W7
  -weard(es) sfx -ward (in some specified direction) W7
  weorþ adj worthy W7
  weorðan vb to worth W7
  wyrd adj weird W7
Middle English: adverse adj adverse W7
  anniversarie n anniversary W7
  averten vb to avert W7
  controversie n controversy W7
  conversen vb to converse W7
  converten vb to convert W7
  diverten vb to divert W7
  inward adj inward W7
  perverten vb to pervert W7
  reverten vb to revert W7
  stalwart/stalworth n stalwart W7
  subverten vb to subvert W7
  vers n verse W7
  -ward(s) sfx -ward W7
  werd n weird, fate, destiny W7
  wird adj weird W7
  worth n worth W7
  worthen vb to worth W7
English: adverse adj antagonistic, acting against/in contrary direction AHD/W7
  advertise vb to inform, notify, call attention to W7
  anniversary n annual recurrence of date marking notable event AHD/W7
  avert vb.trans to turn (e.g. eyes) away/aside AHD/W7
  bouleversement n reversal AHD
  controversy n dispute, discussion marked by opposing claims AHD/W7
  converse vb.arch to become engaged/occupied AHD/W7
  convert vb to move from one view/belief/party to another AHD/W7
  divert vb to deviate, turn aside AHD/W7
  evert vb.trans to upset, overthrow AHD/W7
  extroversion n act/state/habit of attending to/obtaining gratification from outside self AHD/W7
  extrovert adj re: extroversion AHD/W7
  introvert vb to turn/draw inward AHD/W7
  invert vb.trans to turn inside out/upside down AHD/W7
  inward adj inner, situated on inside AHD/W7
  malversation n corruption/misbehavior in trust/office/commission AHD/W7
  obvert vb.trans to turn to present different surface to view AHD/W7
  pervert vb.trans to corrupt, avert from truth/propriety AHD/W7
  re(d)- pfx back, again, in turn TLL
  retro- pfx backward W7
  revert vb.intrans to go/come back AHD/W7
  subvert vb.trans to ruin, overturn/overthrow from foundation AHD/W7
  tergiversate vb.intrans to apostatize, become renegade AHD/W7
  transverse adj extended, lying across AHD/W7
  universe n cosmos, every thing/phenomenon observed/postulated AHD/W7
  university n degree-granting research institution W7
  versatile adj variable, changing/fluctuating readily AHD/W7
  verse n line of metrical writing AHD/W7
  version n translation from another language AHD/W7
  versus prep against AHD/W7
  vertebra n bony/cartilaginous segment in spinal column AHD/W7
  vertex n point opposite to/farthest from base in figure AHD/W7
  vertigo n giddiness, disordered dizzy/whirling state AHD/W7
  vortex n mass of fluid in whirling/circular motion AHD/W7
  -ward adj.sfx that moves/tends/faces/is directed toward AHD/W7
  -ward(s) adv.sfx in (specified) spatial/temporal direction AHD/W7
  weird adj/n (re:) fate, destiny AHD/W7
  worth adj/n (having) material/monetary value AHD/W7
  worth vb.intrans.arch to become, happen AHD/W7
  worthy adj estimable, having worth/value W7
Old Frisian: werð n.neut worth, value ASD
  werth adj worth(y) ASD
  wertha vb to worth, arise, be made ASD
Dutch: adverteeren vb to advertise TLL
  universiteit n university TLL
Old Saxon: -ward sfx -ward ASD
  werð n.neut worth, value ASD
  werðan vb to worth, arise, be made ASD
  werth adj worth(y) ASD
  wurð n.fem weird, death ASD
Old Low German: werð n.neut worth, value ASD
  werth adj worth(y) ASD
Old High German: inwert adj inward W7
  -wart/-wert sfx -ward W7
  werd adj worth(y) W7
  werd n.neut worth, value ASD
  werdan vb to worth, arise, be made W7
  wert n worth, price IEW
  wurt n.fem weird, chance IEW/ASD
German: extravertiert adj extrovert W7
  Extroversion n.fem extroversion W7
  extrovertiert adj extrovert W7
  Universität n.fem university TLL
  werden vb to worth LRC
  Wert n.masc worth LRC
Old Norse: verþa vb to worth LRC
Icelandic: urðr n.fem weird, one of the Norns ASD
  verð n.neut worth, value ASD
  verða vb to worth, arise, be made ASD
  verðr adj worth(y) ASD
Danish: avertere vb to advertise TLL
  universitet n university TLL
Swedish: universitet n university TLL
  värde n worth TLL
Gothic: wairþa n.neut worth, value ASD
  wairþan vb.str.III to worth, arise, be made LRC
  wairþs adj worth(y) ASD
Latin: adversus adv against, opposite to LRC
  adverto, advertere vb to turn W7
  anniversarius adj recurring annually W7
  averto, avertere vb to avert, turn away W7
  controversia n.fem controversy W7
  controversus adj disputable, turned opposite W7
  conversor, conversari vb.dep to live, abide; frequent, converse W7/ELD
  converto, convertere vb to change, turn around W7
  diverto, divertere vb to divert, turn in opposite direction W7
  everto, evertere vb to eject, turn out W7
  inverto, invertere vb to invert, turn inside W7
  obverto, obvertere vb to turn toward W7
  perverto, pervertere vb to pervert, overturn W7
  proversus vb.ptc turned forward W7
  proverto, provertere vb to turn forward W7
  re(d)- pfx re- TLL
  retro adv/pfx back, retro- TLL
  retroversus adj turned backward W7
  reverto, revertere vb.trans to turn/force back W7
  revertor, reverti vb.dep.intrans to revert, come back W7
  subverto, subvertere vb to subvert, turn from beneath W7
  tergiversatus vb.ptc having turned one's back, using pretexts W7
  tergiversor, tergiversari vb.dep to shuffle, turn the back W7
  transversus vb.ptc crossed, turned across W7
  transverto, transvertere vb to cross W7
  universum n.neut universe W7
  universus adj whole, entire W7
  versatilis adj turning easily W7
  versatus vb.ptc active W7
  verso, versare, versavi, versatum vb to turn LRC
  versus, versus n.masc line, row; verse LRC
  versus adv toward(s), against, so as to face W7
  versus vb.ptc turned W7
  vertebra n.fem joint W7
  vertex, verticis n.masc whirl(pool); summit, top of the head W7
  vertigo, vertiginis n.fem vertigo, action of turning/whirling W7
  verto, vertere, verti, versum vb to turn, change, overturn LRC
  vertor, verti vb.dep to turn W7
  vortex, vorticis n.masc whirl(pool); summit, top of the head W7
Medieval Latin: anniversaria n anniversary AHD
  versio, versionis n.fem act of turning W7
New Latin: vortex, vorticis n.masc vortex W7
Portuguese: través adv through, across TLL
Spanish: través adv through, across TLL
Old French: advers adj adverse AHD
  avertir vb to avert AHD
  convertir vb to convert W7
  vers n.masc verse W7
Middle French: advers adj contrary W7
  avertir vb to avert W7
  converser vb to converse W7
  divertir vb to divert W7
  malversation n.fem malversation W7
  malverser vb to be corrupt W7
  pervertir vb to pervert, overturn W7
  revertir vb to revert, turn back W7
  subvertir vb to subvert W7
  verser vb to turn, pour W7
  version n.fem version, rendition of fact W7
French: bouleversement n bouleversement W7
  travers adv/prep through, across TLL
  vers n verse TLL
  versatile adj that turns/changes easily W7
Italian: attraverso adv/prep through, across TLL
  verso adv toward TLL
Lithuanian: versti, vercia, verte vb to force, compel LRC
Old Church Slavonic: vreme n.neut time LRC
Avestan: varut- vb to turn LRC
Sanskrit: vártate vb to roll, turn round LRC
  vartáyati vb to move, set in motion LRC
Tocharian B: wrattsai prep against LRC
Tocharian A: wärt- vb to throw LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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