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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 3i. uer-, ur-ei-   'to clench the teeth; wroth, confused'

Semantic Fields: Anger; Obscure


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bewreon, biwrah, biwrigon, biwrigen vb.str.I to cover, conceal LRC
  brer/brær n.masc brier, bramble W7/ASD
  wræþþo/wræþþu n.fem wrath W7
  wraþ adj wroth, hostile LRC
  wreon, wrah, wrigon, wrigen vb.str.I to hide, cover LRC
  wrigian vb to wry, turn W7
  wriða n.masc wreath, band, ring W7
  wriðan vb to writhe, twist, bind W7
Northumbrian: breer n.masc brier, bramble ASD
Middle English: brere n brier W7
  wrath n wrath W7
  wrethe n wreath W7
  wrien vb to wry W7
  writhen vb to writhe W7
  wroth adj wroth W7
English: briar/brier n plant with woody/thorny/prickly stem W7/AHD
  brusque adj markedly short/abrupt W7/AHD
  wrath n rage, violent anger AHD/W7
  wreath n something intertwined into circular shape AHD/W7
  writhe vb to twist into coils/folds AHD/W7
  wroth adj angry, wrathful, highly incensed AHD/W7
  wry vb to writhe, twist AHD/W7
Old Saxon: wreð adj wroth ASD
Old High German: gi-ridan vb to wry, writhe, rotate ASD
  reid adj curled, twisted, trembling W7/ASD
Old Norse: riða vb to wry, writhe W7
Icelandic: reiði n.fem wrath ASD
  reiðr adj wroth ASD
  ríða vb to wry, writhe, knit, wind ASD
French: brusque adj brusque W7
Homeric Greek: ríptô vb to throw down LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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