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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. uer-   'to shut, close, cover; guard, warn, save'

Semantic Fields: to Shut, Close; to Cover; to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: warnian vb to warn, take heed W7
  wer n.masc weir, dam W7
  werian, werede, wered vb.wk.I to wear; defend, protect LRC
Middle English: apert adj/adv plain, open; plainly, openly MEV
  aperture n aperture W7
  barbican n barbican W7
  coveren vb to cover W7
  coverlet/coverlite n coverlet W7
  garette n garret, watchtower W7
  garisoun n garrison, protection W7
  garment n garment W7
  garnishen vb to garnish W7
  overt adj overt W7
  overture n overture, opening W7
  pert adj pert W7
  warantie n warranty W7
  warenne n warren W7
  warnen vb to warn W7
  warrant n warrant, protector W7
  warranten vb to warrant W7
  were n weir, dam W7
English: ambarella n tropical/equatorial fruit tree AHD
  aperient adj laxative, re: gently moving bowels AHD/W7
  aperitif n alcoholic drink taken as appetizer AHD/W7
  aperture n hole, opening, open space AHD/W7
  barbican n outer defensive work AHD/W7
  cover vb to guard from attack AHD/W7
  coverlet n bedspread AHD/W7
  garage n shelter/repair shop for automobiles AHD/W7
  garment n article of clothing AHD/W7
  garnish vb.trans to trim, decorate, embellish AHD/W7
  garniture n trimming, embellishment AHD/W7
  garret n room/unfinished part of house just under roof AHD/W7
  garrison n military post AHD/W7
  guaranty n undertaking to remedy another's default/miscarriage AHD/W7
  operculum n lid/covering flap AHD/W7
  overt adj manifest, open to view AHD/W7
  overture n proposal, initiative toward action/agreement AHD/W7
  pert adj impudent, saucily free/forward AHD/W7
  warn vb to give prior notice of evil/danger AHD/W7
  warrant n sanction, authorization AHD/W7
  warrant vb.trans to declare/maintain with certainty AHD/W7
  warrantee n person to whom warranty is made AHD/W7
  warranty n real covenant binding grantor/heirs to warrant/defend title AHD/W7
  warren n place for (keeping) small game AHD/W7
  weir n fence/enclosure in waterway for fishing AHD/W7
Old High German: wara n trust, care W7
  warnon vb to warn, take heed W7
  weren vb to warrant W7
  werento n guarantor W7
  werien/werren vb to defend W7
Middle High German: wer n.masc weir, dam ASD
German: warnen vb to warn, caution LRC
  Wehr n.masc weir, dam ASD
  wehren vb to defend LRC
Old Norse: ver n.neut sea, fishing place W7
  verja, varði vb to defend, protect LRC
Icelandic: varna vb to warn, beware ASD
Latin: aper(a)tus vb.ptc opened W7
  aperiens, aperientis vb.pres.ptc opening W7
  aperio, aperire vb to open W7
  apertura n.fem aperture, orifice W7
  cooperio, cooperire vb to open W7
  operculum n.neut cover W7
  operio, operire vb to close, cover W7
Vulgar Latin: operio, operire vb to open W7
  opertura n.fem overture; orifice W7
Late Latin: apertivus n purgative, aperitif AHD
Medieval Latin: aperitivus n.masc aperitif W7
  barbacana n.fem barbican W7
New Latin: operculum n.neut covering flap of plant W7
Old French: aperitif n purgative, aperitif AHD
  apert vb.ptc open(ed) W7
  barbacane n.fem barbican W7
  garantir vb to guarantee W7
  garison n.fem garrison, troop of guardians W7
  garnement n.masc equipment W7
  garnesture n.fem garniture W7
  garnir vb to equip W7
Old North French: warantie n.fem warranty W7
  warant(ir) vb to warrant W7
Anglo-French: coverelyth n.masc coverlet W7
Middle French: aperitif adj aperient, re: opening W7
  garantie n.fem guaranty W7
  garite n.fem garret, watchtower W7
  garnement n.masc equipment W7
  garnir vb to warn, equip; garnish W7
  garniture n.fem garniture W7
  o(u)vert adj overt, open W7
  ouvrir vb to open W7
  overture n.fem overture; orifice W7
French: apéritif n.masc aperient, aperitif W7
  couvrir vb to cover W7
  garage n.masc garage, covered parking W7
Old Proven├žal: garida n.fem garret, watchtower, protection W7
Lithuanian: varýti, vãro, vãre vb to be engaged LRC
Greek: erúkô vb to hold back LRC
  rúomai vb to save LRC
Old Iranian: *parivaraka- adj protective AHD
Persian: barbar n guard AHD
  barbarkhana n barbican AHD
Sanskrit: amravatakah n ambarella AHD
  vatah n enclosure AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pres=present (tense)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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