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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 8. uer-   'to notice, observe, attend, be aware'

Semantic Fields: to See; to Look; to Sense, Perceive; Sense


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gewær adj aware W7
  hlaford n.masc lord W7
  sti(g)-weard n.masc steward W7
  wær adj wary, aware, careful W7
  warian, warode, warod vb.wk.II to guard, protect, occupy LRC
  waru n.fem ware, merchandise W7
  weard n.masc ward, keeper W7
  weardian vb to ward W7
Middle English: Arctour/Arture/Arthurus prop.n Arcturus CDC
  awarden vb to award, decide W7
  aware/ywar/iwar(e) adj aware CDC/W7
  garde n guard W7
  lord/loverd n lord W7
  regard n regard W7
  regarden vb to regard W7
  rerewarde n rearward W7
  rewarden vb to reward W7
  steward n steward W7
  ward n ward W7
  wardein n warden W7
  warden vb to ward W7
  warder n warder W7
  warderobe n wardrobe W7
  war(e) adj wary, careful W7
  ware adj aware, careful W7
  waren vb to ware; spend; guarantee W7
English: Arcturus prop.n Alpha Bootes: bright yellow-orange star AHD
  award vb.trans to give by decree AHD/W7
  aware adj careful, watchful AHD/W7
  cyclorama n large pictorial representation encircling spectator W7
  ephor n (Spartan) magistrate with power over king AHD/W7
  guard n guardianship AHD/W7
  Hayward prop.n friend of Merry in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hayward n sheriff in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  lord n one having power/authority over others AHD/W7
  Morgul-lord prop.n Nazgûl king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  panorama n cyclorama AHD/W7
  pylorus n opening from stomach into intestine AHD/W7
  rearward n rear AHD/W7
  regard n aspect AHD/W7
  regard vb to pay attention to AHD/W7
  revere vb.trans to show devotion/honor to AHD/W7
  reward vb.trans to give to in return for good/evil done/received AHD/W7
  steward n one employed to manage domestic concerns AHD/W7
  ward n guard, act/process of guarding AHD/W7
  ward vb.trans to guard, keep watch over AHD/W7
  warden n keeper, guardian, one having care/charge of something AHD/W7
  warder n truncheon used to signal orders AHD/W7
  wardrobe n room/closet for keeping clothes AHD/W7
  ware n goods, merchandise, art/craft products AHD/W7
  ware vb.trans to beware of AHD/W7
  wary adj marked by caution/cunning/watchful prudence AHD/W7
  Windlord prop.n eagle a.k.a. Gwaihir in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Witch-lord prop.n Nazgûl Lord in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: wardia vb to ward, keep, defend ASD
  ware n.fem care, observance ASD
  waria vb to ware ASD
  wera vb to ware; check, hinder, restrain ASD
  were n.fem ware ASD
Old Saxon: wara n.fem heed, safekeeping ASD
  ward n.masc ward, guardian ASD
  wardon vb to ward, to have charge of ASD
  waron vb to ware ASD
  werian vb to ware; check, hinder, restrain ASD
Old High German: bi-waron vb to ward, protect W7
  gi-war adj wary, aware, attentive W7
  wara n.fem heed, care ASD
  wart n.masc ward, sentry ASD
  warta n.fem ward, concern W7/ASD
  warten vb to ward, watch, take care W7
  werien vb to ware; check, hinder, restrain ASD
Middle High German: gewar adj aware CDC
  ware n ware W7
German: bewahren vb to preserve, conserve LRC
  gewahr adj aware LRC
  Ware n.fem ware LRC
  Wärter n.masc warden TLL
Old Norse: vara, varað vb to ware, expect LRC
  varða n.fem cairn, marker, beacon KNW
  varða vb to ward W7
  varr adj wary LRC
Icelandic: vara n.fem ware ASD
  vara vb to ware ASD
  vörðr n.masc warden, watchman, sentinel ASD
Swedish: minnesvård n monument TLL
Gothic: daura-wards n.masc warden, watchman, sentinel ASD
  warei n.fem cunning ASD
  warjan vb to ware; hinder, prevent ASD
Latin: Arcturus n.masc Arcturus W7
  ephorus n.masc supervisor W7
  reveror, revereri vb.dep to respect with fear W7
  vereor, vereri vb.dep to fear, respect W7
Late Latin: pylorus n.masc gatekeeper W7
Spanish: esquardar vb to award CDC
Old French: eswarde(i)r vb to award CDC
  garde n.masc guardian W7
  garder vb to guard, defend W7
  regard n.masc regard, glance W7
  regarder vb to regard, look at W7
  reregarde n.fem rear guard W7
Old North French: eswarder vb to ward, watch W7
  rewarder vb to reward, regard W7
  wardein vb to ward W7
  warder vb to ward W7
  warderobe n.fem wardrobe W7
Anglo-French: awarder vb to award CDC
Middle French: garde n.masc guardian W7
Italian: sguardare vb to award, decide, consider, look at CDC
Homeric Greek: eph-oráô vb to behold, look upon LRC
  oráô/oróô vb to see, behold LRC
  oûros n ward, watch LRC
Greek: Arktouros n.masc Arcturus, the Bear Watcher W7
  ésoptron n.neut mirror LRC
  ephoros n.masc ephor, supervisor W7
  horama n.neut sight W7
  horan vb to see W7/AHD
  pyloros n.masc gatekeeper W7
  sunoráô vb to comprehend LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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