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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 11. uer-, ueru-   'to show friendship; true, very, veracious, trustworthy'

Semantic Fields: Friend; True


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wær adj true W7
Middle English: averren vb to aver W7
  verifien vb to verify W7
  verite n verity W7
  verr(a)y adj very W7
English: aver vb.trans to verify, prove true AHD/W7
  veracious adj honest, truthful AHD/W7
  verify vb.trans to confirm/substantiate in law via oath AHD/W7
  verisimilar adj probable, having appearance of truth AHD/W7
  verism n artistic preference of ordinary to heroic/legendary AHD/W7
  verity n truth, reality AHD/W7
  very adj true, properly entitled to name/designation AHD/W7
Old Frisian: wer/weer adj true, very ASD
Old Saxon: war adj true, very ASD
  werd n host, landlord KSW
Old High German: wara n trust, care W7
  war(i) adj true, very, truthful ASD
  wirt n host, landlord, innkeeper KDW
German: wahr adj true, real, very LRC
  Wirt n.masc host, landlord, innkeeper LRC
Swedish: värd n host, landlord SAO
Gothic: waírdus n host, lodging provider KGW
Latin: verax, veracis adj true, sincere, truthful W7
  verisimilis adj verisimilar W7
  veritas, veritatis n.fem truth W7
  vero adv truly LRC
  verus adj true W7
Vulgar Latin: *adverare vb to aver AHD
  *veracus adj true W7
Medieval Latin: advero, adverare vb to aver, confirm as authentic W7
  verifico, verificare vb to verify W7
Old French: aver(r)er vb to aver CDC
  verai adj true, veracious W7
Middle French: avérer vb to aver, confirm as authentic W7
  vérifier vb to verify W7
  verité n.fem verity W7
French: avérer vb to aver CDC
  vrai adj true, veracious TLL
Old Occitan: averar vb to aver CDC
Italian: avverare vb to aver CDC
  verismo n.masc verity, realism W7
  vero adj true, veracious W7
Old Church Slavonic: vera n.fem faith, belief LRC
Greek: êra help, gifts, favors LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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