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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. uerg-, ureg-   'to do, work, be effective'

Semantic Field: to Do, Make

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: be-weorcean/bi-wyrcan vb to make, build, cover, adorn, work in ASD
  bewyrcan, beworhte, beworht vb.wk.I to make, build, cover, adorn, work in LRC
  gew(e)orc/gewere n.neut work; fort(ress) W7/ASD
  gewyrc(e)an, geworhte, geworht vb.wk.I to achieve, perform, accomplish ASD
  handgeweorc n.neut handiwork W7
  organa/organe n.fem organ, musical instrument W7/ASD
  we(o)rc n.neut work, deed LRC
  wryhta/wyrhta n.masc wright, worker, maker W7
  wyrcan, worhte, worht vb.wk.I to work, labor ASD
Middle English: bulwerke n bulwark W7
  handiwerk n handiwork W7
  irken vb to irk W7
  litargie n lethargy W7
  organ n organ W7
  surgerie n surgery W7
  werk n work W7
  werken vb to work W7
  work n work W7
  worken vb to work W7
  wright n wright W7
  wrought adj wrought W7
English: adrenergic adj liberating/activated by adrenaline AHD/W7
  allergy n altered bodily reactivity (to antigens) AHD/W7
  argon n colorless odorless inert gas AHD/W7
  boulevard n broad landscaped thoroughfare AHD/W7
  bulwark n rampart, solid wall-like structure AHD/W7
  cholinergic adj liberating/activated by acetycholine AHD/W7
  demiurge n subordinate deity (Greek philosophy) AHD/W7
  dramaturge n playwright AHD/CDC
  endergonic adj re: energy absorption AHD
  endoergic adj re: (nuclear) energy absorption AHD
  energetic adj strenuous, marked by energy W7
  energy n vitality of expression AHD/W7
  erg n CGS unit of work AHD/W7
  ergative adj re: case of grammatical subject AHD
  ergograph n apparatus for measuring muscular work capacity AHD/W7
  ergometer n apparatus for measuring muscular work performed AHD/W7
  ergonomics n designing job/workplace/equipment to maximize productivity AHD
  exergonic adj releasing energy AHD
  exergue n space on coin/token/medal below central design AHD/W7
  exoergic adj releasing energy AHD
  georgic adj re: agriculture AHD/W7
  handiwork n work done by hand AHD/W7
  irk vb.trans to make bored/weary/irritated AHD/W7
  lethargy n abnormal drowsiness AHD/W7
  liturgy n prescribed rites for public worship AHD/W7
  metallurgy n science/technology of metals AHD/W7
  organ n musical instrument AHD/W7
  organon n instrument for acquiring knowledge AHD/W7
  orgy n secret ceremonial rite involving ecstatic singing/dancing AHD/W7
  playwright n writer of plays LRC
  surgery n branch of medicine dealing with diseases AHD/W7
  synergid n small cell near micropyle of seed plant embryo sac AHD/W7
  synergism n cooperative action of agencies (whole effect greater than sum of parts) AHD/W7
  thaumaturge n thaumaturgist: magician, lit. miracle-worker AHD/W7
  -urgy n.sfx technique/art of dealing/working with (something) AHD/W7
  work, wrought vb.wk to effect, bring to pass AHD/W7
  work n activity where one exerts strength/faculties to do/perform something AHD/W7
  wright n worker, carpenter AHD/W7
  wrought adj formed, fashioned AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: werk n.neut work ASD
  werka vb to work, labor ASD
Middle Dutch: bolwerc n bulwark W7
Dutch: werken vb to work LRC
Old Saxon: giwerk n work; fort(ress) ASD
  hand-giwerk n handiwork ASD
  werk n.neut work, pain ASD
  wirkian vb to work, labor ASD
  wurhtio n.masc wright, worker, maker ASD
Old High German: gawerk n work; fort(ress) ASD
  weran n.neut work, structure ASD
  werc n work W7
  wurchen/wirchen vb to work, labor ASD
  wurhto n.masc wright, worker, maker ASD
Middle High German: bolwerc n bulwark W7
German: Allergie n allergy W7
  Bollwerk n.neut bulwark LRC
  Handwerk n.neut handiwork LRC
  Werk n.neut work LRC
  wirken vb to work LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: verk n work LRC
  verkr n ache, pain LRC
  yrkja vb to do, work LRC
Icelandic: organ n.neut organ: instrument ASD
  verk n.neut work ASD
  yrkja vb to work, labor ASD
Danish: virke vb to work LRC
Swedish: verk n work TLL
  verka vb to work LRC
  värk n ache, pain LRC
E-Germanic  
Gothic: frawaúrhts n.str.fem sin LRC
  gawaurki n work; fort(ress) ASD
  waúrkjan vb.wk.I to work, make, labor LRC
Crimean Gothic: *warþata/v(v)arthata vb.pret.sg (you/he) did/made CGo
Italic  
Latin: chirurgia n.fem surgery W7
  georgicus adj re: farming W7
  organum n.neut organ W7
  orgia n.neut.pl festivals honoring Bacchus/Dionysos W7
Late Latin: demiurgus n.masc demiurge W7
  energia n.fem energy W7
  lethargia n.fem lethargy W7
  liturgia n.fem liturgy, public cult/prayer W7
Medieval Latin: litargia n.fem lethargy W7
New Latin: exergum n.neut exergue W7
  metallurgia n.fem metallurgy W7
  synergida n.fem synergid W7
  synergismus n.masc synergism W7
  thaumaturgus adj re: working miracles W7
  -urgia sfx -urgy, craft W7
Old French: cirurgie n.fem surgery W7
  organe n.masc organ W7
  surgerie n.fem surgery W7
Middle French: orgie n.fem orgy W7
French: boulevard n.masc boulevard W7
  exergue n.masc exergue W7
  thaumaturge n.masc thaumaturge W7
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: ergázomai vb to do, make, work, perform LRC
  érgon n.neut work, deed LRC
Greek: argós adj idle, lazy, inert, slothful CDC
  georgikos adj re: farming W7
  georgos n.masc farmer W7
  dêmiourgós n.masc demiurge, lit. people's worker LRC
  enérgeia n.fem energy, activity, operation LS
  energêtikós adj energetic CDC
  energós adj busy, active, working, energetic LS
  thaumatourgos adj lit. miracle-working W7
  leitourgia n.fem liturgy, public cult/service W7
  lethargia n.fem lethargy, forgetfulness W7
  lethargos adj lethargic, forgetful W7
  organon n.neut tool, instrument W7
  -ourgia sfx service W7
  -ourgos sfx worker W7
  synergos adj working together W7
  cheirourgia n.fem surgery W7
  cheirourgos n.masc surgeon W7
Armenian  
Classical Armenian: gorc n work, deed LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pret=preterite (tense)
sfx=suffix
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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