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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ues-   'to live, stay overnight'

Semantic Fields: to Live, Dwell; to Stay, Wait, Remain


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: fe(i)ss vb to sleep LRC
Old English: wæren were (we/you/they) W7
  wæron (we/you/they) were W7
  wæs, wære, wæs was, were, was W7
  was vb.anom.pret.1/ (I/he) was W7
  wes be! TLL
  wesan vb.anom to be LRC
Middle English: was vb.anom.pret.1/ (I/he) was W7
  were (thou) were W7
  weren (we/you/they) were W7
English: astute adj shrewd, wily, sagacious AHD/W7
  divan n hall, court, council chamber AHD/CDC
  Vesta prop.n [asteroid named for] virgin hearth/fire goddess (Roman mythology) AHD/W7
  was vb.anom.pret.1/ [suppletive form of] be AHD/W7
  wassail n (early English toast to) good health AHD/W7
  were [suppletive form of] be AHD/W7
  were [suppletive form of] be AHD/W7
Old Frisian: wesa vb.anom to be ASD
Middle Dutch: wesen vb.anom to be LRC
Dutch: geweest vb.anom.past.ptc been TLL
  waren were TLL
  was was, were TLL
  wezen vb.anom to be LRC
Old Saxon: wesan vb.anom to be ASD
Old High German: wesan vb.anom to be ASD
German: gewesen vb.anom.past.ptc been TLL
  während prep during TLL
  war, warst, war was, were, was LRC
  waren, wart, waren were LRC
Old Norse: vas, vast, vas was, were, was LRC
  vásum, vásuþ, vásu were LRC
  vesa/vera vb.anom to be, stay; happen, be done LRC
Icelandic: vera vb.anom to be ASD
Danish: var vb.anom.pret was, were TLL
  varrende vb.anom.pres.ptc being TLL
  vær vb.anom.imp be! TLL
  være vb.anom to be TLL
  vært vb.anom.past.ptc been TLL
Swedish: var vb.anom.imp be! TLL
  var was TLL
  vara vb.anom to be TLL
  varit vb.anom.past.ptc been TLL
  voro were TLL
  værende vb.anom.pres.ptc being TLL
Gothic: was, wast, was was, were, was LRC
  wesu, wesuts vb.anom.pret.du were LRC
  wesum, wesuþ, wesun were LRC
  wisan vb.str.V to be LRC
Latin: astus n.masc craft, cleverness W7
  astutus adj astute, adroit, clever W7
  Vesta prop.n Vesta W7
Hittite: hues- vb to live LRC
Old Persian: vahanam n house AHD
Avestan: vanghaiti vb to stay, dwell LRC
Sanskrit: vásati vb to live, dwell W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
2=2nd person
3=3rd person
V=class 5
du=dual (number)
imp=imperative (mood)
masc=masculine (gender)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)
pret=preterite (tense)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
subj=subjunctive (mood)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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