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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: uesperos, uekeros   'vesper, evening'

Semantic Field: Evening


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: west adj/adv west, westerly W7
  westan adv westward, from the west ASD
Middle English: vesper n vesper, evening W7
  west adv/adj west(ern) W7
  westerne adj western W7
English: Hesperian prop.adj re: where Sun sets, lit. of the west LRC
  Hesperides prop.n nymphs tending blissful garden in distant west (Greek mythology) LRC
  Hesperus prop.n (evening star named for) son of dawn goddess Eos (Greek mythology) LRC
  pipistrelle n small insectivorous bat AHD
  vesper n evening (star) AHD/W7
  vespers evening religious rites LRC
  vespertilionid n insectivorous bat AHD
  Visigoth prop.n western Goth LRC
  west adv/adj westward; re: the west AHD/W7
  west n general direction of sunset W7
  Westemnet prop.n western Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  westerly adj/adv to/from the west AHD/W7
  western adj re: region toward setting sun AHD/W7
  Westernesse prop.n land a.k.a. Númenor in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Westfarthing prop.n Shire quadrant in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Westfold prop.n Rohan district in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  westmansweed n pipe-weed in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Westmarch prop.n Shire district in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Westron prop.n language a.k.a. Common Speech in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  westward adv to/toward the west  
Dutch: westen n west TLL
Old High German: westar adv west W7
  westroni adj western W7
German: Westen n.masc west LRC
  westlich adj western LRC
Old Norse: vestr n.neut the west LRC
Icelandic: vestari adj western, westerly ASD
Danish: vest n west TLL
Swedish: väster adj west TLL
Latin: Hesperia prop.n.fem the west W7
  Hesperides the Hesperides W7
  Hesperus prop.n.masc Hesperus W7
  vesper n.masc vesper W7
Late Latin: Visigothi the Visigoths W7
Homeric Greek: espérios adj/adv west(ern), re: evening W7
  ésperos adj/n.masc evening; vesper LRC
Greek: Hesperia prop.n.fem the Evening W7
  Hesperos prop.n.masc Hesperus W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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