The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: uet-   'year'

Semantic Field: Year

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Middle Irish: feis n sow LRC
Old Breton: guis n sow LRC
Cornish: guis n sow LRC
English  
Middle English: bellwether n bellwether W7
  veel n veal W7
  wether n wether W7
English: bellwether n leader, one that takes initiative AHD/W7
  etesian adj recurring annually AHD/W7
  inveterate adj firmly established via persistence AHD/W7
  veal n calf (bovine) AHD/W7
  veteran n old/former soldier AHD/W7
  veterinary adj re: art/science of animal medicine AHD/W7
  vitellus n yolk AHD/W7
  wether n ram castrated before sexual maturity AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old High German: widar n ram, wether W7
German: Widder n.masc ram, wether LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Icelandic: veðr n ram, wether LRC
E-Germanic  
Gothic: wiþrus n year-old lamb LRC
Italic  
Umbrian: vituf n.acc.pl calves LRC
Latin: etesius adj etesian, re: summer W7
  inveteratus vb.ptc untouched by age W7
  invetero, inveterare vb to age W7
  veteranus adj old, of long experience W7
  veterina(e) n.fem.pl beasts of burden W7
  veterinus adj re: beasts of burden W7
  vetus, veteris adj old, aged W7
  vitellus n.masc.dim small calf W7
  vitulus n.masc calf (bovine) W7
Middle French: veel n.masc veal W7
Baltic  
Old Lithuanian: vetusas adj old, aged LRC
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: vetu'cu' adj old LRC
Albanian  
Albanian: vit n year LRC
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: étos n.neut year LRC
Greek: etesios adj etesian, re: summer W7
Anatolian  
Luwian: ussa- n year LRC
Hieroglyphic Luwian: usa- n year LRC
Hittite: witt- n year LRC
Iranian  
Sogdian: wtsnyy adj old LRC
Indic  
Sanskrit: vatsá- n year LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
adj=adjective
dim=diminutive
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
ptc=participle
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etyma:    previous   |   next