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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ulkuos   'wolf, lobo'

Semantic Field: Wolf


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: Beowulf prop.n.masc Bear, lit. bee-wolf LRC
  here-wulf n.masc warrior, lit. war-wolf ASD
  werwulf n.masc werewolf, lit. man-wolf LRC
  wulf n.masc wolf W7
  Wulfred prop.n.masc Wulfred LRC
Middle English: lupine n lupine W7
  werewolf n werewolf W7
  wolf n wolf W7
English: aardwolf n carrion-eating SE African mammal AHD/W7
  alyssum n Old World herb in mustard family AHD/W7
  Gárulf prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  lobo n wolf AHD/W7
  lupine adj wolfish AHD/W7
  lupine n leguminous herb AHD/W7
  lupus n disease involving skin lesions AHD/W7
  lycanthrope n person believing self to be wolf AHD/W7
  Lycia prop.n ancient SW Anatolian country AHD
  lytta n fibrous/cartilaginous rod in carnivorous mammal's tongue AHD/W7
  robalo n snook, tropical marine food fish AHD
  Ulfilas prop.n Gothic Bible translator LRC
  werewolf n lycanthrope, lit. man-wolf AHD/W7
  Wolf prop.n huge dog in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  wolf n large canine mammal AHD/W7
  wolfram n tungsten AHD/W7
  wolframite n tungsten ore W7
  Wolf-rider prop.n ally of Saruman in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Wulf prop.n Rohan enemy in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Dutch: wolf n wolf TLL
Afrikaans: aardwolf n aardwolf W7
Old Saxon: wulf n.masc wolf ASD
Old High German: werwolf n werewolf W7
  wolf n.masc wolf W7/ASD
German: Werwolf n.masc werewolf LRC
  Wolf n.masc wolf W7
Old Norse: ulfa-hamr n.masc wolf-hame LRC
Old Icelandic: ulfr n wolf LRC
Icelandic: ulfr n.masc wolf ASD
Danish: ulv n wolf TLL
Gothic: Wulfila prop.n.dim Ulfilas, lit. little wolf LRC
  wulfs n.masc wolf ASD
Latin: alysson n (kind of) madder AHD
  lupinus/lupinum n.masc/neut lupin W7
  lupinus adj wolfish W7
  lupus n.masc wolf W7
Medieval Latin: lupus n.masc wolf; the disease lupus W7
New Latin: alyssum n.neut alyssum W7
  lycanthropus n.masc werewolf, lycanthrope W7
Spanish: lobo n.masc wolf W7
Lithuanian: vílkas n wolf LRC
Latvian: vìlks n wolf LRC
Old Church Slavonic: vluku n wolf LRC
Russian: volclca n wolf LRC
Albanian: ujk n wolf LRC
Homeric Greek: alússô vb to be frenzied LRC
  Lukía prop.n.fem Lycia (land of wolf-people) LS
  lúkos n.masc wolf LRC
  lússa n.fem (martial) rage LRC
Greek: alysson n.neut plant thought to cure rabies W7
  alyssos adj curing rabies W7
  lykanthropos n.masc werewolf, lit. wolf-man W7
  Lúkios n.masc Lycius LRC
  lyssa n rabies W7
  lytta n.fem rabies, madness W7
Hittite: lukka n (land of) wolf-people LRC
  ulippana n wolf LRC
Armenian: gayl n wolf LRC
Avestan: vuhrko n wolf LRC
Sanskrit: vrkas n wolf LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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