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Indo-European Lexicon

Icelandic Reflex Index

Below we list 1352 unique Icelandic reflex spellings (words and affixes) in an alphabetic order suitable for the language family. Every spelling is linked to one or more pages, each showing a Proto-Indo-European etymon from which the reflex is derived along with other reflexes (in Icelandic or other languages) derived from the same PIE etymon. A multi-morpheme reflex may, like English werewolf, be derived from multiple PIE etyma; or a single spelling may, like English bear or lie, represent multiple reflexes derived from different PIE etyma.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

N-Germanic: A | Á | B | D | Ð | E | F | G | H | I | Í | J | K | L | M
N | O | Ó | P | R | S | T | U | Ú | V | Y | Ý | Þ | Æ | Ö=Ǫ | Œ

ReflexEtyma
afapo-
aftanepi
agiagh-
agnar2. ak̑-
albogi8. el-
aldr2. al-
ale1. al-
alin8. el-
alk1. el-
alka1. el-
allr1. al-
allt1. al-
alnbogi8. el-
alrēlā
annarr2. an-
aptanepi
armr1. ar-, orbho-
arsers-
askr*ōs
asnaers-
asniers-
at1. ad-
augaok-
austrau̯es-
axullag̑-
āakā-, 4. an-
ār1. ei-, 4. ei-
āttaok̑tō(u)
babblababa-
baðabhē-
baðmrbheu-
bakabhē-
ballr3. bhel-
bandbhendh-
bangabheg-
banibhen-
*bankibheg-
bann2. bhā-
banna2. bhā-
barar1. bher-
barlakbhares-
barmr1. bher-, 1. bherem-
barn1. bher-
bartbhardhā
batibhā̆d-
baugr3. bheug-
baukrbhāgó-s
baula6. bhel-
baunbhabhā
bauta1. bhā̆u-
baztrbhā̆d-
bāðarambhi
bāðiambhi
bāðirambhi
bākn1. bhā-
bālkr5. bhel-
bātrbheid-
beðr1. bhedh-
beitbheid-
beitabheid-
bekkrbheg-, bhog-
belgrbhelg̑h-
benbhen-
bendabhendh-
ber1. bhā-
bera1. bher-
bergbhereg̑h-
berkjabhereg-
berserkr5. bher-
betribhā̆d-
beykibhāgó-s
beyla2. b(e)u-
beyrsta1. bhā̆u-
beysta1. bhā̆u-
beztrbhā̆d-
biðja2. bhedh-
bifabhei-
bikpei̯(ə)-
bindabhendh-
bitbheid-
bitibheid-
bitrbheid-
biörkbherəg̑-
bītabheid-
bjargbhereg̑h-
bjālki5. bhel-
bjōðabheudh-
bjōr2. pō(i)-
bjōrr5. bher-, 2. pō(i)-
björn5. bher-
blað4. bhel-
blaðr3. bhel-
blaðra3. bhel-
blakabhlag̑-
blakkrbheleg-
blandabhlendh-
blautrbhleu-, 2. bhlēu-
blārbhlē-u̯o-s
blāsa3. bhel-
blāstr3. bhel-
blāstrbelgrbhelg̑h-
bleikjabheleg-
bleikrbheleg-
blekbheleg-
blekkjabheleg-
blessa4. bhel-
bletza4. bhel-
bleza4. bhel-
*blincanbheleg-
blindabhlendh-
blindrbhlendh-
blīdhr1. bhlē̆i-
blīkabheleg-
blīkjabheleg-
blōð4. bhel-
blōm4. bhel-
blōmi4. bhel-
blōmstr4. bhel-
blōt4. bhel-
blōta3. bhel-
blundabhlendh-
blunðrbhlendh-
blæða4. bhel-
boðabheudh-
bogi3. bheug-
bokkibhū̆g̑o-s
bolli3. bhel-
bolr3. bhel-
boltibheld-
bora3. bher-
borðbheredh-
borgbhereg̑h-
borgabherg̑h-
borr3. bher-
botnbhudh-m(e)n
bōabheu-
bōglīnabhāg̑hú-s
bōgrbhāg̑hú-s
bōkbhāgó-s
bōla2. b(e)u-
bōlkr5. bhel-
bōlstrbhelg̑h-
bōn2. bhā-
bōtbhā̆d-
bragrbhereg̑h-
brak1. bhreg̑-
braka1. bhreg̑-
brandrbh(e)reu-
brasabh(e)reu-
brattrbhren-
brauðbh(e)reu-
bregðabherək̑-
brjōst1. bhreu-s-
brjōta1. bhrē̆u-
broddrbhar-
brok2. bhreg̑-
bruggabh(e)reu-
brunnrbh(e)reu-
brū2. bhrū-
brūkabhrūg-
brūn1. bhrū-
brūnn5. bher-
bryggja2. bhrū-
brytja1. bhrē̆u-
bræktabhereg-
buga3. bheug-
bulr3. bhel-
burðr1. bher-
burstbhares-
bheu-
būabheu-
būðbheu-
būrbheu-
bygð3. bheug-
bylgiabhelg̑h-
byrðl1. bher-
*byrðr1. bher-
byrðr1. bher-
byrr1. bher-
bȳbhei-
bæðiambhi
böllr3. bhel-
börgr3. bher-
börur1. bher-
dagaā̆g̑her-
dagrā̆g̑her-
dalr1. dhel-
dauði2. dheu-
dauðr2. dheu-
daufr4. dheu-
dāð2. dhē-
deigdheig̑h-
dimmrdhem-
djūprdheu-b-
djöfull2. gel-
dōmr2. dhē-
dōttirdhug(h)əter-
dragadherāgh-
drekiderk̑-
drekkadhreg̑-
drekkjadhreg̑-
drepadhrebh-
dreyridhreu-
drifdhreibh-
drīfadhreibh-
drjōni3. dher-
dropidhreu-
drōtt2. dher-
drōttinn2. dher-
drunur3. dher-
dröridhreu-
dulr4. dheu-
dūnn4. dheu-
dvergrdhu̯ergh-
dvina2. dheu-
dvīna2. dheu-
dynjadhu̯en-
dynrdhu̯en-
dynta3. dhen-
dyntr3. dhen-
dyrrdhu̯ē̆r-
dyttr3. dhen-
dȳfadheu-b-
dȳr4. dheu-
dægrā̆g̑her-
dæma2. dhē-
dögg1. dheu-
dökkr1. dher-
dœgrā̆g̑her-
ðat1. to-
earl3. er-
efriāpero-
egg2. ak̑-
eiaiu̯-
eitroid-
ekeg̑-
eld-stóstā-
elguralgh-
ella1. al-
ellar1. al-
ellegar1. al-
ellifu1. leip-, oi-no-
elligar1. al-
endiant-s
endirant-s
erfiðiorbho-
erjaar(ə)-
erviðiorbho-
espiapsā
etaed-
eyaiu̯-, akā-
eylandakā-, 3. lendh-
eyra2. ōus-
eyrirai̯os-
faðirpətḗ(r)
fagr1. pek̑-
falda3a. pel-
fallaphō̆l-
fangapā̆k̑-
fara2b. per-
farri2d. per-
fastapasto-
fat1. pē̆d-
fax2. pek̑-
pā̆k̑-
fālmapelə-
fānipā̆n-
fār2e. per-, pōu-
feginn1. pek̑-
feigr2. peig̑-
feitrpei̯(ə)-
fell3b. pel-
fen2. pen-
ferja2b. per-
festapasto-
2. pek̑-
fingrpenke
finnapent-
fiskrpeisk-
fjarri2a. per-
fjāndipē(i)-
fjoðr2. pet-
fjōrirketu̯er-
fjöl-1. pel-
fjörðr2b. per-
Fjörgynperku-s
flausturpleu-
flā1. plā-k-, plēk̑-
fleskplēk̑-
fletplā̆t-
flikplēk̑-
flikkiplēk̑-
fljōtpleu-
fljōtapleu-
fljūgapleu-
flōblou-
flōapleu-
flōðpleu-
flōki1. plā-k-
flōrpelə-
flugapleu-
flýjapleu-
fnœsapneu-
foglpleu-
foldpelə-
folipōu-
for3. perk̑-
forn2a. per-
fōðrpā-
fōlk1. pel-
fōtr2. pē̆d-
fram2a. per-
frā2a. per-
frekrpreg-
Freyr2a. per-
frīprāi-
frjaprāi-
frjōsapreus-
froskrpreu-
frostpreus-
frum-2a. per-
frændiprāi-
fuglpleu-
fullr1. pel-
furask3. perk̑-
fylla1. pel-
fyrstr2a. per-
fæðapā-
fæðipā-
för2b. per-
fösull3. pes-
galaghel-
galdrghel-
galðrghel-
gall1. g̑hel-
gangag̑hengh-
garðrg̑herdh-
garn5. g̑her-
gassig̑han-s-
gatghed-
gata1. g̑hē-
gāsg̑han-s-
gāshaukrg̑han-s-
gefaghabh-
geirlaukrg̑haiso-
geirrg̑haiso-
geiskigheis-
geitghaido-
gellaghel-
gestrghosti-s
geymaghou̯(ē)-
geysa1. g̑heu-
Geysir1. g̑heu-
gildighel-tō
gīna2. g̑hē-
gīslgheidh-
gjaldghel-tō
glaðr1. g̑hel-
gleða1. g̑hel-
gler1. g̑hel-
glossa1. g̑hel-
glōð1. g̑hel-
glōfilēp-
glögr1. g̑hel-
gnagaghen-
gnit2. nei-
gorgher-
gōmrg̑hēu-
grafa2. ghrebh-
graflax2. ghrebh-, lak̑-
gramr2. ghrem-
grāðr1. g̑her-
grāðugr1. g̑her-
grār3. g̑her-
greiða1. ar-
gremja2. ghrem-
gresjaghrē-
grimmr2. ghrem-
grīpaghreib-
grjōt2. ghrēu-
grōaghrē-
grunnrghren-
grænnghrē-
gröf2. ghrebh-
gröm2. ghrem-
guðg̑hau-
guð-spjall(s)pel-
gull1. g̑hel-
gunnr2. ghen(-ə)-
gūðr2. ghen(-ə)-
gylla1. g̑hel-
gyrðag̑herdh-
gyrðillg̑herdh-
hafakap-
hafrkapro-
haftkap-
haglkaghlo-
hakikeg-
halda5. kel-
haltr3. kel-
hanak̑o-
hangak̑enk-
hanikan-
hannk̑o-
hansk̑o-
haptkap-
harðr3. kar-
harmrk̑ormo-
harpa(s)kerb(h)-
haslkos(e)lo-
hastrk̑ēi-bh-
hatak̑ād-
hatrk̑ād-
haukrkap-
haull1. k̑eu-
haust4. (s)ker-
hālfa1. (s)kel-
hālfr1. (s)kel-
hālmrk̑oləmo-s
hāls-björg1. kel-
hār2. keu-
hārr2. k̑ei-
hā-sin3. kenk-
hefjakap-
heiðinnkaito-
heiðr(s)kāi-
heilagrkai-lo-
heillkai-lo-
heim1. k̑ei-
heimr1. k̑ei-
heita3. kā̆i-
heitr3. kā̆i-
helgakai-lo-
helgidōmrkai-lo-
hennark̑o-
hennik̑o-
heptikap-
her1. k̑er(s)-
herik̑as-
herjakoro-s
herjaskkoro-s
herrkoro-s
her-togideuk-
hestr1. k̑āk-
hēðrak̑o-
hērk̑o-
hifinn3. k̑em-
hildr3. kel-
himinn3. k̑em-
himin-rīki3. k̑em-
hindrak̑o-
hirðirk̑erdho-
hittakeid-
hjartak̑ered-
hjālm4. k̑el-
hjālmr4. k̑el-
hjālpak̑elb-
hjól1. kel-
hjōn1. k̑ei-
hjū1. k̑ei-
hjūn1. k̑ei-
hjörðk̑erdho-
hjörtr1. k̑er-
hlaðaklā-
hlassklā-
hlaupa1. ku̯elp-
hlātrklēg-
hlē1. k̑el-
hliðk̑lei-
hlīðk̑lei-
hljōð1. k̑leu-
hljōðan1. k̑leu-
hlōa6. kel-, klēg-
hlust1. k̑leu-
hlusta1. k̑leu-
hlȳ1. k̑el-
hlȳja1. k̑el-
hlȳr1. k̑el-
hnakki1. ken-
hnīgaknei-gh-
hnot1. ken-
hodd2. (s)keu-
hof2. keu-
holkau-l-
holakau-l-
hollr2. k̑el-
holrkau-l-
holstr4. k̑el-
holt3. kel-
honumk̑o-
hōfrkā̆pho-
hōlkēl-
hōrakā-
hraðr1. kret-
hrafn1. ker-
hramn1. ker-
hratt1. kret-
hrár1. kreu-
hrinda2. kret-
hringja1. ker-
hringr3. (s)ker-
hrista3. (s)ker-
hrím1. krei-
hrími1. krei-
hrím-kaldr1. krei-
hróðr2. kar-
hrófk̑rā̆po-
hrókr1. ker-
hryggja3. kreu-
hryggwa3. kreu-
hrækja1. ker-
hræra3. kreu-
hunk̑o-
hunangkenəkó-
hundrdek̑m̥, k̑u̯on-
hund-rað1. ar-
hundraðdek̑m̥
hungr2. kenk-
huppr2. keu-
hurðkert-
húð2. (s)keu-
hús2. (s)keu-
húslk̑u̯en-
hvalr(s)kalo-s
hvarko-
hvasskē̆d-
hvatko-
hvatrkē̆d-
hválf2. ku̯elp-
hvártko-
hvel1. kel-
hverfaku̯erp-
hverna2. ker-
hverr2. ker-
hvetjakē̆d-
hvílakei̯ə-
hvílíkrko-
hvítr3. k̑uei-
hyra1. k̑er-
hǣll3. kenk-
höfnkap-
höggvakāu-
höll4. k̑el-
hömkonəmo-
hörgr3. kar-
höstugrk̑ēi-bh-
höttrkadh-
iðri1. en
innan1. en
inni1. en
inri1. en
í1. en
Írarpei̯(ə)-
īsarn1. eis-
īss2. ei-s-
jarl3. er-
3. e-
járn1. eis-
jūgrēudh-
jökulli̯eg-
kakagag-
kala3. gel(ə)-
kaldr3. gel(ə)-
kambrg̑embh-
karlg̑er-
karpa3. ger-
kartr3. ger-
kenna2. g̑en-
kerfill4. bhel-
keyrg̑eus-
kind1. g̑en-
kinn2. g̑enu-
kjarnig̑er-
kjōll2. gel-
kjōsag̑eus-
kjörrg̑eus-
klif1. gel-
kljūfagleubh-
klókkvaklēg-
klōt1. gel-
klæði1. gel-
knapprgen-
knā2. g̑en-
knē1. g̑enu-
knifrgen-
knoðagen-
knosagen-
knūtrgen-
knyllagen-
knytjagen-
kock-hūspek-
kokkrpek-
kolg(e)u-lo-
komagā-
konagē̆nā
konungr1. g̑en-
korng̑er-
kōngr1. g̑en-
krabbigerebh-
kraftr3. ger-
kraptr3. ger-
krjupa3. ger-
kroppr3. ger-
krōna3. (s)ker-
krukka3. ger-
kuðr2. g̑en-
kuklarii̯ek-
kunagē̆nā
kunnr2. g̑en-
kūpagēu-
kwāngē̆nā
kweða2. get-
kwelja1. gel-
kwikr3. gei̯-
kwīða1. gei-
kwǣngē̆nā
kykr3. gei̯-
kynna2. g̑en-
kyrtill4. (s)ker-
kyssaku-
kȳrgou-
laknarileg̑-
lama1. lem-
lami1. lem-
latr3. lē(i)-
lauðrlou-
launlāu-
lauss2. leu-
laxlak̑-
lánaleik-
lāta3. lē(i)-
leggjalegh-
leið2. leit(h)-
leiða2. leit(h)-
leiðr1. leit-
leif1. leip-
leifa1. leip-
leka1. leg-
lend2. lendh-
lengja5. del-
lepjalab-
lesales-
leyfaleubh-
leyfileubh-
lénaleik-
léttrlegh-
lifa1. leip-
lifri̯ē̆k-r̥(t-)
liggjalegh-
lim8. el-
limr8. el-
lindlento-
linrlento-
listaleizd-
listileizd-
líða2. leit(h)-
líf1. leip-
lík2. lē̆ig-
líka2. lē̆ig-
líkami2. lē̆ig-
líkamr2. lē̆ig-
línlī̆-no-
línalī̆-no-
lítillleud-
ljáleik-
ljósleuk-
ljóssleuk-
ljúfrleubh-
ljúga1. leugh-
lof-gjarn1. g̑her-
lok1. leug-
loka1. leug-
lokkr1. leug-
los2. leu-
lungulegh-
lúka1. leug-
lúslū̆s
lútaleud-
lystalas-
lȳðir1. leudh-
læknirleg̑-
lærlenk-
læraleik-
lævirki3. leig-
lögrlaku-
maðramodhro-
magimak-
magnmagh-
magrmāk̑-
malt1. mel-
markamereg̑-
marrmori
matrmad-
mágrmē̆gh-
mál3. mē-
mānadagrā̆g̑her-
mánimēnōt
mánuðrmēnōt
már1. mū̆-
máttrmagh-
með2. me-
meðal-medhi-
meginmagh-
meiðmar2. mei-t(h)-
meinmei-no-
meir4. mē-
mergrmoz-g-o-
merkjamereg̑-
merrmarko-
messasmeit-
meta1. med-
mér1. me-
mik1. me-
mikillmeg̑(h)-
mildr1. mel-
milti1. mel-
mis-2. mei-t(h)-
missa2. mei-t(h)-
mistil-teinnmeig̑h-
mīgameig̑h-
mílag̑héslo-
mīn1. me-
mīnn1. me-
mjólkrmē̆lg̑-
mjödrmédhu
mjöl1. mel-
mjörkvi2. mer-
mold1. mel-
morð4. mer-
morginn2. mer-
morna(s)mer-
mosi1. meu-
motti1. math-
móðirmātér-
móð-sefisap-
mundmə-r
munni2. menth-
munnr2. menth-
munr3. men-
múðr2. menth-
mūgi2. am-
mūgr2. am-
múnkr4. men-
músmūs
myg2. mū-
mylna1. mel-
myrkr2. mer-
mæra1. mei-
mærr1. mei-
möðr5. mē-
mörkmereg̑-
mœtamōd-
naðrnē-tr-
naðranē-tr-
nafarr1. enebh-
nafli1. enebh-
nafnen(o)mn̥-
nagaghen-
naglonogh-
naglionogh-
nauð2. nāu-
nautneu-d-
nautrneu-d-
nál(s)nē-
nárhvalur(s)kalo-s
nāttnek-(t-)
nefinepōt-
nefnaen(o)mn̥-
neinn1. , oi-no-
nema1. nem-
niðr1. en
nīð2. nei-
níue-neu̯en
njótaneu-d-
norðarr2. ner-
norðast2. ner-
norð-maðr2. ner-
norðr-vegar2. ner-
nōne-neu̯en
nōttnek-(t-)
nunū̆-
nunnanana
nū̆-
nykrneig-
nærenek̑-
nöf1. enebh-
nökkvinogo-
nökviðrnog-
nösnas-
oðinsdagrā̆g̑her-
ofanupo
offra1. bher-
ofnauq(h)-
ofr-upér
og4. au-
ognauq(h)-
okkar3. ne-
okkur3. ne-
olbogi8. el-
omnauq(h)-
orð6. u̯er-
organ2. u̯erg̑-
or-lofleubh-
ormr3a. u̯er-
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