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Indo-European Lexicon

Middle High German Reflex Index

Below we list 837 unique Middle High German reflex spellings (words and affixes) in an alphabetic order suitable for the language family. Every spelling is linked to one or more pages, each showing a Proto-Indo-European etymon from which the reflex is derived along with other reflexes (in Middle High German or other languages) derived from the same PIE etymon. A multi-morpheme reflex may, like English werewolf, be derived from multiple PIE etyma; or a single spelling may, like English bear or lie, represent multiple reflexes derived from different PIE etyma.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

W-Germanic: A | B | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Z

ReflexEtyma
ābentepi
ackerag̑ro-s
ackeranōg-
ackesag(e)sī
áderēter-
agene2. ak̑-
agne2. ak̑-
aheakā-
ahseag̑-
ahselag̑-
ahtok̑tō(u)
al1. al-
albalbho-
āleēlā
alfalbho-
alles1. al-
alpalbho-
alse1. al-
alsō1. al-
alt2. al-
alter2. al-
althorn1. k̑er-
alūnalu-
an4. an-
ander2. an-
ane2. ak̑-, 4. an-
angel2. ank-
angestang̑h-
ankeang̑h-
anlāgelegh-
apfelā̆bel-
arbeitorbho-
archeareq-
arebeitorbho-
arm1. ar-, orbho-
arn1. er-
arnenes-en-
arsers-
art4. er-
āsed-
asch*ōs
ascheā̆s-
aspeapsā
ātemēt-mén-
axtag(e)sī
bachbhog-
bachenbhē-
badbhē-
badenbhē-
balcbhelg̑h-
bald3. bhel-
balke5. bhel-
balle3. bhel-
ban2. bhā-, bhen-
bancbheg-
banebhen-
bankbheg-
bann2. bhā-
bannen2. bhā-
bantbhendh-
bar1. bher-, 3. bher-, bhoso-s
bāre1. bher-
barre3. bher-
bartbhardhā
batbhē-
be-huofkap-
beideambhi
beizbheid-
beizebheid-
belche1. bhel-
beliben1. leip-
bendenbhendh-
bengelbheg-
ber1. bhā-, 5. bher-
bercbhereg̑h-
bercfritbhereg̑h-, prāi-
berchfritbhereg̑h-, prāi-
bercvritbhereg̑h-, prāi-
bere1. bhā-, 1. bher-
bergenbhereg̑h-, bherg̑h-
berhfridebhereg̑h-, prāi-
berhtbherəg̑-
bestbhā̆d-
bet1. bhedh-
bete2. bhedh-
bette1. bhedh-
bezzerbhā̆d-
bezzistbhā̆d-
biambhi
bibenbhei-
biber5. bher-
bīebhei-
biegen3. bheug-
bieten2. bhedh-
bilbhei(ə)-
bilebhei(ə)-
bīnbhei-
binbhei-, bheu-
bindebhendh-
bindenbhendh-
binebhei-
binnen1. en
birchebherəg̑-
birkebherəg̑-
bischofspek̑-
bistbheu-
bīten1. bheidh-
bitten2. bhedh-
bitterbheid-
biule2. b(e)u-
biutenbheudh-
biuwenbheu-
bizbheid-
bīzenbheid-
bizzebheid-
blābhlē-u̯o-s
blackbheleg-
blæjen3. bhel-
blæwen3. bhel-
blancbheleg-
blandenbhlendh-
blasbhles-
blāsen3. bhel-
blast3. bhel-
blat4. bhel-
blāter3. bhel-
blātere3. bhel-
blatter3. bhel-
blāzenbhlē-
bleichbheleg-
bleichenbheleg-
blendenbhlendh-
blērenbhlē-
blerrenbhlē-
blīcanbheleg-
blichen1. bhlē̆i-
blīde1. bhlē̆i-
blintbhlendh-
blœde2. bhlēu-
blōdern3. bhel-
bloust4. bhel-
blōz2. bhlēu-
blüejen4. bhel-
blüen4. bhel-
bluntbhlendh-
bluome4. bhel-
bluon4. bhel-
bluot4. bhel-
bluoten3. bhel-
bocbhū̆g̑o-s
bodembhudh-m(e)n
bodenbhudh-m(e)n
boge3. bheug-
bole3. bhel-
bolle3. bhel-
bolsterbhelg̑h-
bolwerc2. u̯erg̑-
bolzbheld-
bōnebhabhā
borgenbherg̑h-
born3. bher-
bortbheredh-
boubheu-
bouc3. bheug-
bouchen1. bhā-
*böugel3. bheug-
boumbheu-
bouwenbheu-
bōzel1. bhā̆u-
bōzen1. bhā̆u-
brach1. bhreg̑-
bradem2. bher-
bræhenbhrag-
bræjen2. bher-
brahsenbherək̑-
brāme1. bherem-
brantbh(e)reu-
brantweīnbh(e)reu-
brasembherək̑-
brātebh(e)reu-
brātenbh(e)reu-
brāwe1. bhrū-
brëchen1. bhreg̑-
brehenbherək̑-
brem1. bherem-
brennenbh(e)reu-
brestenbhres-
brëtbheredh-
brimmen2. bherem-
bringenbhrenk-
briuwenbh(e)reu-
brodbh(e)reu-
brōsem2. bhreu-s-
brōseme2. bhreu-s-
brōsme2. bhreu-s-
brōtbh(e)reu-
brūchenbhrūg-
brücke2. bhrū-
brucke2. bhrū-
brüejebh(e)reu-
brüejenbh(e)reu-
brüenbh(e)reu-
brügge2. bhrū-
brūn5. bher-
brunnebh(e)reu-
bruoderbhrā́ter-
bruotbh(e)reu-
brust1. bhreu-s-
bheu-
būdebheu-
büenen1. bhā-
bulgebhelg̑h-
bulzenbheld-
buntbhendh-
buobebaba-
buocbhāg̑hú-s
buochbhāgó-s
buochebhāgó-s
buoch-stabebhāgó-s
buodebheu-
Buohhunnabhāgó-s
buozbhā̆d-
buozebhā̆d-
burcbhereg̑h-
bürde1. bher-
burnebh(e)reu-
burren1. bher-
bürstebhares-
bütelbheudh-
butergou-
buwenbheu-
dictegu-
dicketegu-
dīhte2. tenk-
dol4. dheu-
dranc1. trenk-
drëcsk̑er-(d-)
drec8. (s)ter-
drīestrei-
dringen1. trenk-
drosteltrozdos-
drōztr-eu-d-
dunken1. teng-
dunstertem(ə)-
ēaiu̯-
ebbeapo-
eck2. ak̑-
ecke2. ak̑-
edeleā̆tos
egeagh-
egeseagh-
ehtok̑tō(u)
eiō(u̯)i̯-om
eich2. aig-
eiche2. aig-
eigenēik-
einlef1. leip-, oi-no-
einlif1. leip-, oi-no-
eischen1. ais-
eiseagh-
eit5. ai-
eitenoid-
eiteroid-
ekelnaigh-
elbealbho-
elch1. el-
elenboge8. el-
ellen8. el-
ellenboge8. el-
elline8. el-
eln8. el-
elne8. el-
endeant-s
ende-lōsant-s
engeang̑h-
enkel2. ank-
ent-rāton1. ar-
ēre2. ais-
erenar(ə)-
erknellengen-
ernar(ə)-
ernest3. er-
erwachenu̯eg̑-
escheā̆s-
eselers-
ēweaiu̯-
ēwecaiu̯-
ēwicaiu̯-
ëzzened-
fager1. pek̑-
fingerpenke
frideprāi-
gǣbeghabh-
galle1. gel-, 1. g̑hel-
gān1. g̑hē-
gancg̑hengh-
gangeng̑hengh-
ganzeg̑han-s-
ganzerg̑han-s-
garn5. g̑her-
garteg̑herdh-
gastghosti-s
gatghed-
gateghedh-
gaterghedh-
gaternghedh-
gazze1. g̑hē-
gebūrbheu-
gebūrebheu-
geburt1. bher-
ge-gateghedh-
geilghoilo-s
geilenghoilo-s
geinireno-
geistgheis-
geizghaido-
geleich4. leig-
gēn1. g̑hē-
gengeng̑hengh-
gērg̑haiso-
getelingghedh-
ge-telle2. dhel-
geternghedh-
gevēch2. peig̑-
gewar8. u̯er-
ge-ziucdeuk-
gīhtg̑hengh-
gi-hurten2. (s)keu-
glimsen1. g̑hel-
glīten1. g̑hel-
glitschen1. g̑hel-
glitzen1. g̑hel-
gomeg̑hðem-
gram2. ghrem-
grane3. gher-
grans3. gher-
grāpen1. ghrebh-
grāt3. gher-
grogezengru-
gurtg̑herdh-
habenekap-
hackenkeg-
haderk̑at-
hǣli4. k̑el-
halten5. kel-
-hart3. kar-
hechelkeg-
heie(s)k(h)ai-
hëllen6. kel-
hemmen1. kem-
hestk̑ēi-bh-
hetzenk̑ād-
heystk̑ēi-bh-
hirn-bolle3. bhel-
hiulenul-
hose2. (s)keu-
houbetmankap-ut
hulfter4. k̑el-
hulst4. k̑el-
hummen2. kem-
hundertdek̑m̥
ieaiu̯-
irre2. ere-s-
ite-eti
iuterēudh-
3. e-
jār1. ei-
jārzīt, 1. ei-
jeaiu̯-
jesti̯es-
jodeln2. i̯ū̆
jōlen2. i̯ū̆
junc3. i̯eu-
kachenha ha!
kachezenha ha!
kæseku̯at(h)-
kafg̑ep(h)-
kalt3. gel(ə)-
kambeg̑embh-
kampg̑embh-
kapūn2. (s)kē̆p-
karg̑ā̆r-
këc3. gei̯-
kël2. gel-
kellen1. gel-
kennen2. g̑en-
kērg̑ers-
kerbangerebh-
kerbengerebh-
kēreg̑ers-
kerlg̑er-
kërng̑er-
kërneg̑er-
kërren2. ger-
kërvele4. bhel-
këvereg̑ep(h)-
kiden2. get-
kiel2. gel-
kieseng̑eus-
kinn2. g̑enu-
kint1. g̑en-
kirren2. ger-
kitel4. (s)ker-
kittel4. (s)ker-
kiuseng̑eus-
kiuweng(i̯)eu-
kivelg̑ep(h)-
kleit1. gel-
kliebengleubh-
kliubengleubh-
kliuwel1. gel-
klōz1. gel-
knëtengen-
knie1. g̑enu-
knillengen-
knochegen-
knochengen-
knöckelgen-
knodegen-
knollegen-
knopfgen-
knotegen-
knüllengen-
knüsengen-
knüssengen-
kobegēu-
kochpek-
kolg(e)u-lo-
komengā-
kongē̆nā
konegē̆nā
korng̑er-
krā2. ger-
krachen2. ger-
kræjen2. ger-
kraft3. ger-
kranech2. ger-
krebezgerebh-
kretze3. ger-
kriuchen3. ger-
kropf3. ger-
krotengreut-
krūche3. ger-
krume3. ger-
krump3. ger-
kruoc3. ger-
küchepek-
kuchepek-
kuchenpek-
küele3. gel(ə)-
küene2. g̑en-
kumpf2. keu-
künc1. g̑en-
künden2. g̑en-
künec1. g̑en-
künic1. g̑en-
kunnen2. g̑en-
kunt2. g̑en-
kuogou-
kuofegēu-
kuolēn3. gel(ə)-
kuon2. g̑en-
kūrg̑eus-
kūreg̑eus-
küssenku-
læge2. lēg̑h-
lāgelegh-
lanchekleng-
lankekleng-
lant3. lendh-
lederhose2. (s)keu-
leichen3. leig-
lērche3. leig-
liederlich(s)leu-
loubeleubh-, leup-
mægen2. am-
mæjen2. am-
magetmaghos
magetīnmaghos
mahtmagh-
māl3. mē-
māndemēnōt
mānemēnōt
māntmēnōt
markemereg̑-
māt2. mē-
meischmei-k̑-
meistersingermeg̑(h)-, sengh-
mengenmen(ə)k-
menschmanu-s
messesmeit-
mewen2. am-
milkhmē̆lg̑-
minnesinger3. men-, sengh-
misse-2. mei-t(h)-
motte1. math-
mügenmagh-
mugenmagh-
mūlbermoro-
muormā-no-
nabeger1. enebh-
negber1. enebh-
negeber1. enebh-
obeseupo
oeheimau̯o-s
oesenaus-
ōheimau̯o-s
ōre2. ōus-
ōstenau̯es-
ōsteneau̯es-
ou1. au-
ouch4. au-
ougeok-
ovenauq(h)-
oweóu̯i-s
pflückenpi-lo-
pfnūsenpneu-
pfriemeong-
quëc3. gei̯-
quellen1. gel-
queln1. gel-
querchdhu̯ergh-
quetschengedh-
quetsengedh-
quiden2. get-
raben1. ker-
rade-ber1. bher-, ret(h)-
ram1. ker-
ramm1. ker-
rappe1. ker-
retichu̯(e)rād-
rigel3. u̯er-
roumreugh-m(e)n-
rube1. ker-
rüejen1. erə-
ruoch1. ker-
ruowe2. erə-
ruschrezg-
safsap-
saftsap-
saftecsap-
salbeselp-
schāchkþē(i)-
scharte4. (s)ker-
schnitzelsneit-
schoz2. (s)keud-
schuoch2. (s)keu-
schurz4. (s)ker-
sāi-
segge2. sē̆k-
sengensenk-
singersengh-
sinkenseng-
slepfer3. lei-
slīm3. lei-
slīten(s)leidh-
slitzen1. (s)kel-
sloten(s)leu-
slotern(s)leu-
slouche(s)leug̑-
slūder(s)leu-
slūder-affe(s)leu-
slūdern(s)leu-
smalz1. mel-
smiegen2. meug-
smouch(s)meukh-
snappensnā-
snerrenpneu-
snizsneit-
soln2. (s)kel-
spec3. sp(h)ē(i)-
spelte1. (s)p(h)el-
spreckel*(s)p(h)ereg-
sprenkel*(s)p(h)ereg-
sprenzensp(h)erd(h)-
spriezen2. (s)p(h)er-
stal3. stel-
stall3. stel-
stecken(s)teig-
sterkestā-
sterzen1. (s)ter-
stief1. (s)teu-
stīfstē̆ib(h)-
stīgestāi-
stījestāi-
stirkestā-
strant5. ster-
strousel5. ster-
stürn1. tu̯er-
stutz1. (s)teu-
stutzen1. (s)teu-
sumer3. sem-
sumpfsu̯omb(h)o-s
swansu̯en-
swankensu̯eng-
sweiz2. su̯eid-
tacā̆g̑her-
tagā̆g̑her-
tagenā̆g̑her-
tal1. dhel-
tāpe
tardhers-
tat2. dhē-
techerdek̑m̥
teicdheig̑h-
tëlbendhelbh-
telbendhelbh-
telle1. dhel-
tenne2. dhen-
tīchdhēig-
tiefdheu-b-
tier4. dheu-
tievel2. gel-
tigerdheig̑h-
tigeredheig̑h-
timberdhem-
timmerdhem-
tiuvel2. gel-
tob4. dheu-
tohterdhug(h)əter-
tol4. dheu-
top4. dheu-
torstedhers-
tōt2. dheu-
tou1. dheu-
touben4. dheu-
toufendheu-b-
toup4. dheu-
trachederk̑-
trackederk̑-
tragendherāgh-
traz4. der-
tren3. dher-
trene3. dher-
trenkendhreg̑-
treten3. der-
trībendhreibh-
triffendhrebh-
triftdhreibh-
trinkendhreg̑-
trol3. der-
trolle3. der-
tropfedhreu-
trōrdhreu-
trote3. der-
trotte3. der-
truht2. dher-
truosen1. dher-
tücmen2. dhē-
tuom2. dhē-
tuon2. dhē-
turendhers-
turrendhers-
twercdhu̯ergh-
unruowe2. erə-
uoverāpero-
ürochseu̯eg-
ūterēudh-
ūzū̆d-
vadem1. pet-
vaden1. pet-
vāhenpā̆k̑-
vahs2. pek̑-
vālant1. pel-
valden3a. pel-
vallenphō̆l-
-valt3a. pel-
valten3a. pel-
vanpā̆n-
vanepā̆n-
vār2e. per-
var2b. per-, 2d. per-
vāre2e. per-
varm2b. per-
varn2b. per-
varre2d. per-
varzenperd-
vasel3. pes-
vastpasto-
vastenpasto-
vaterpətḗ(r)
vaʒ1. pē̆d-
vēch1. peig-, 2. peig̑-
vëder2. pet-
vëdere2. pet-
vehten2. pek̑-
veige2. peig̑-
veim(s)poimno-
veiʒpei̯(ə)-
veiʒetpei̯(ə)-
veiʒtpei̯(ə)-
vël3b. pel-
veltpelə-
vencheldhē(i)-
vërre2a. per-
verterken1. dher-
vertirken1. dher-
verwepfenkeu̯əp-
verzenperd-
verzern4. der-
vestepasto-
vestenpasto-
vīantpē(i)-
vīentpē(i)-
vierketu̯er-
vierduncketu̯er-
vihe2. pek̑-
vil1. pel-
vile1. peig-
vilz2a. pel-
vindenpent-
vinke(s)pingo-
vīntpē(i)-
virne2a. per-
vischpeisk-
vīsen2. peis-
vist2. peis-
visten2. peis-
viurpeu̯ōr
viuwerpeu̯ōr
viwerpeu̯ōr
vlæenpleu-
vlæjenpleu-
vlahsplek̑-
vlëcplēk̑-
vleischplēk̑-
vletzeplā̆t-
vliegepleu-
vliegenpleu-
vliehenpleu-
vliezpleu-
vlins(s)plei-
vliuspleus-
vliuzenpleu-
vlōchblou-
vluhtpleu-
vluorpelə-
vluotpleu-
vogelpleu-
vohe1. pū̆k-
vol1. pel-, pōu-
volc1. pel-
volepōu-
vorhen2. perk̑-
vorht2. perg-
vorhte2. perg-
vort2a. per-
vragen4. perk̑-
vrëchpreg-
vrëzzened-
vrîprāi-
vrīenprāi-
vrīgenprāi-
vriuntprāi-
vriusenpreus-
vroschpreu-
vrostpreus-
vruotpret-
vüelen3a. pel-
vüeren2b. per-
vüerer2b. per-
vüetenpā-
vuhs1. pū̆k-
vūl2. pū̆-
vülipōu-
vüllen1. pel-
vulnpōu-
vünfpenke
vunfpenke
vuotenpā-
vuoterpā-
vuoz2. pē̆d-
vürder2a. per-
vür-hanck̑enk-
vurt2b. per-
vurzenperd-
vūstpn̥ksti-
wackenu̯eg̑h-
wahsenau̯eg-
wall7. u̯el-
wandern1. u̯endh-
wanne1. u̯āt-
warc3e. u̯er-
ware8. u̯er-
wāt5. au̯-
wazzer9. au̯(e)-
wellen7. u̯el-
wer5. u̯er-
wē-tāt2. dhē-
wettenu̯adh-
wickenu̯eg̑-
wilge7. u̯el-
winter9. au̯(e)-
wise3. k̑uei-
wune1. eu-
würzeu̯(e)rād-
zāchdenk̑-
zāhedenk̑-
zangerdenk̑-
zechedeig̑h-
zeindu̯ō(u)
zeinedu̯ō(u)
ziehendeuk-
ziestagā̆g̑her-
zinted-
zipfdumb-
zipfeldumb-
zīt
zītunge
ziucdeuk-
ziugendeuk-
zornig4. der-
z-öugenok-
z-ounenok-
zouwen3. deu-
zwēnedu̯ō(u)
zwerchdhu̯ergh-
zwi-du̯ō(u)
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