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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ā̆bel-, ā̆bō̆l-, abel-   'apple'

Semantic Field: Apple


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: abhal/ubhal n apple CDC
Gaelic: abhal/ubhall n apple ASD/CDC
Manx: ooyl n apple CDC
Breton: aval n apple CDC
Cornish: aval n apple CDC
Old Welsh: abal n apple CDC
Welsh: afal n apple CDC
Old English: æp(pe)l/ap(pe)l n.masc apple ASD
  æppel-ðorn n.masc crab-apple (tree), lit. apple-thorn ASD
Middle English: appel/ap(p)le n apple CDC
  eppel/epple n apple CDC
English: apple n round, edible, usu. red/yellow pome fruit AHD/W7
  Appledore prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  dapple n (animal having) mottled/spotted marking AHD
  dapple vb to spot, variegate with spots AHD/CDC
Old Frisian: appel n.masc apple CDC
Frisian: a(e)ple n.masc apple CDC
North Frisian: apel n.masc apple CDC
Dutch: appel n.masc apple CDC
Old High German: affal/affol/afful n.masc apple CDC
  apful n.masc apple W7
  aphal/aphol/aphul n.masc apple CDC
Middle High German: apfel n.masc apple CDC
German: Apfel n.masc apple TLL
Old Norse: *apall n apple AHD
  epli n.neut apple CDC
Norwegian: eple n apple CDC
Danish: æble n.neut apple CDC
Old Swedish: æpl n.neut apple CDC
Swedish: äp(p)le n.neut apple CDC
Crimean Gothic: apel n apple CGo
Latin: Abella prop.n town where apple orchards originated? CDC
Old Prussian: woble n apple CDC
Lithuanian: obolys/obulas n apple ASD/CDC
Latvian: ābols n apple CDC
Old Slavic: ablŭko n apple W7
Polish: jabłko n apple CDC
Czech: jabl(k)o n apple CDC
Serbian: yabuka n apple CDC
Slovenian: yabelko/yabolka n apple CDC
Old Church Slavonic: (y)ablŭko n apple CDC
Bulgarian: (y)ablŭka n apple CDC
Russian: yabloko n apple CDC
Belorussian: yabko n apple CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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