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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ag̑ro-s   'field, acre'

Semantic Fields: Plain, Field; Field for Cultivation


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: æcer/æcyr n.str.masc acre GED/ASD
Middle English: acre/aker/akir n acre CDC
  agriculture n agriculture AHD
  onager n wild ass W7
  pilgrim n pilgrim W7
  podagra n podagra W7
  staphisagre n stavesacre W7
English: acre n field, large area of land AHD/W7
  agrarian adj re: fields/farmers AHD/W7
  agria n (type of) blow-fly AHD
  agriculture n craft/science of farming/cultivation AHD/W7
  agro- pfx field(s), grass(es) AHD
  agrostology n study of grasses AHD
  onager n heavy catapult AHD/W7
  pellagra n a skin disease AHD/W7
  Peregrine prop.n hobbit a.k.a. Pippin in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  peregrine adj tending to wander AHD/W7
  pilgrim n one who journeys to holy place AHD/W7
  podagra n foot disease AHD/W7
  stavesacre n (seeds of) Eurasian larkspur AHD/W7
Old Frisian: ekker n.str.masc acre GED
Dutch: akker n acre CDC
Old Saxon: akkar n.str.masc acre GED
Old High German: achar/ackar/accar n.str.masc acre GED/CDC
Middle High German: acker n acre CDC
German: Acker n.masc acre LRC
  agrarisch adj agrarian LRC
  Agrikultur n.fem agriculture LRC
  Pilger n.masc pilgrim LRC
Old Norse: akr n acre ASD
Old Icelandic: akrs n.str.masc acre GED
Danish: ager n acre CDC
Swedish: åker n acre CDC
Gothic: akrs n.masc acre GED
Latin: ager, agrī n.masc acre, district, property LRC
  -agra sfx disease, sickness W7
  agrarius adj agrarian W7
  agrestis adj wild GED
  agricultura n.fem agriculture W7
  onager n.masc wild donkey; war machine W7
  pereger adj being abroad W7
  peregrinus adj/n.masc foreign(er) W7
  podagra n.fem podagra W7
Late Latin: pelegrinus n.masc pilgrim W7
Medieval Latin: peregrinus n.masc pilgrim W7
Old French: peligrin n.masc pilgrim W7
French: agriculture n.fem agriculture W7
Italian: pellagra n.fem pellagra W7
Homeric Greek: ʼάγρη n.fem hunt, catch(ing) GED/IEW
  ἀγρός n.masc acre, farm GED
Greek: ʼάγρα n.fem hunt, catch(ing) LS
  ἀγραυλούνω vb to dwell in fields LRC
  ʼάγριος adj wild, savage, living in fields GED
  agrōstis n (kind of) wild grass AHD
  onagros n.masc wild donkey; war machine W7
  podagra n.fem podagra W7
  staphisagre n wild raisin W7
Armenian: art n acre GED
Avestan: *azrā n hunt GED
  azrō-daiðim vb to hunt, pursue, go out for prey GED
Sanskrit: ájras n plain, acre, flatland GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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