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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ag(e)sī, aksī   'axe'

Semantic Field: Ax


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: acas(e) n.fem ax ASD
  æces/æcs(e) n.str.fem ax GED
  æ(c)x/æsc/axe n.str.fem ax GED/ASD
Northumbrian: acasa/acase n ax CDC
Middle English: ax(e)/ex/æx n ax W7/CDC
English: ax(e) n weapon, cutting tool AHD/W7
Old Dutch: akes n ax CDC
Dutch: aks(e)/aaks n.fem ax ASD/CDC
Old Saxon: ac(c)us n.str.fem ax GED/CDC
Old High German: ac(c)hus/ackus n.str.fem ax GED/ASD
  akis n.str.fem ax GED
Middle High German: ackes/axt n.fem ax ASD/CDC
German: Axt n.fem ax, hatchet ASD
Old Norse: öx n.fem ax ASD
Old Icelandic: ax n.str.fem ax GED
  øx n.str.fem ax GED
Icelandic: öx(i) n ax CDC
Danish: ökse/öxe n ax ASD/CDC
Swedish: yxa n ax ASD
Gothic: aqizi n.fem ax ASD
Latin: ascia n.fem ax (of carpenters/masons) GED
Homeric Greek: ἀξίνη n.fem ax, battle-axe GED
Hittite: ates(sa)- n ax, adze, hatchet GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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