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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ai-dh-, i-dh-, nasalized i-n-dh-   'to burn, shine'

Semantic Fields: to Burn, Scorch; to Shine, Glisten


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ād/aad n.masc funeral pyre ASD
  ǣlan vb to burn, kindle, set on fire W7/ASD
  āl(ed) n fire CDC
  āst n.fem oast IEW
Middle English: ether n ether W7
  ost n oast W2I
English: aedile n Roman official AHD/W7
  (a)estival adj re: summer AHD/W7
  (a)estivate vb to pass summer in torpor AHD/W7
  (a)ether n heavens, upper air AHD/W7
  estuary n inlet, arm of the sea AHD/W7
  Etna prop.n volcano in Sicily AHD
  oast n kiln, drying oven W2I
Dutch: eest n oast W2I
Old Saxon: eld n fire CDC
German: Ätna prop.n Etna LRC
  Stiefel n boot TLL
Old Norse: eldr n.masc fire LRC
  styfill n boot KNW
Danish: ild n fire CDC
  støvle n boot TLL
Swedish: eld n fire CDC
Latin: aedes n.fem house, building, temple W7
  aedilis n.masc aedile W7
  aestās, aestātis n.fem summer LRC
  aestīvus adj re: summer CLD
  aestuarium n.neut estuary, low ground covered by sea at high tide W7
  aestus, aestūs n.masc heat; swell, surge, tide LRC
  aether n.neut aether W7
  Aetna prop.n Etna, lit. fiery one AHD
Old French: estival n long boot LRC
Italian: stivale n boot LRC
Homeric Greek: αἰθήρ n.neut sky, aether W7
Greek: aithein vb to blaze, ignite W7
Sanskrit: edh-as n wood for fuel ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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