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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: ai̯os-   'ore, metal (copper, bronze, iron)'

Semantic Fields: Copper, Bronze; Iron


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ǣr/ār n.str.neut ore; brass, bronze, copper GED
  ǣr(e)n/ǣryn adj of brass/bronze GED/ASD
Middle English: or n ore W7
English: aeneous adj re: bronze/copper AHD
  era n age, (long) period of time AHD/W7
  esteem n good opinion TLL
  estimate vb to appraise, guess value TLL
  eyrir n type of money AHD/W7
  ore n metal-loaded mineral AHD/W7
  ore n type of money AHD/W7
Old Saxon: ēr n.str.neut ore GED
  ērin adj re: bronze GED
Old High German: ēr n.str.neut ore, bronze, mineral GED
  ērin adj re: bronze GED
German: Ära n.fem era LRC
  Erz n.neut ore, metal ASD
Old Norse: eir n.neut bronze, copper ASD
  eyrir n ounce of silver, [pl.] money W7
Old Icelandic: eir n.str.neut ore, copper GED
Icelandic: eyrir n monetary unit: 100th of a krona W7
Norwegian: øre n monetary unit W7
Danish: erts n copper coin, monetary unit ASD
Swedish: öre n copper coin, monetary unit W7
Gothic: aiz n.neut money, metal coin GED
Oscan: eisernim n ore pit GED
Umbrian: ahesnes of bronze GED
Latin: aēn(e)us adj aeneous GED/CLD
  aera counters of money-dealers W7
  aes, aeris n.neut ore, metal, money LRC
  aestimō, aestimāre vb to value, estimate TLL
Avestan: ayah- n iron, metal GED
Sanskrit: áyas- n iron, metal GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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