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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ais-   'to wish, desire, ask/search for'

Semantic Fields: to Will, Wish; to Desire


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ahsian/axian vb to ask ASD
  āscian vb to ask CDC
Middle English: asken/esken vb to ask W7/CDC
  axen vb to ask, inquire, demand MEV
English: ask vb to request, question AHD/W7
Old Frisian: āskia/aschia vb to ask CDC/ASD
Dutch: eischen vb to ask CDC
Old Saxon: ēscōn vb to ask CDC
Old High German: eiscōn vb to ask ASD
Middle High German: eischen vb to ask CDC
German: (h)eischen vb to ask CDC
Old Norse: æskja vb to ask, wish ASD
Danish: æske/äske vb to ask CDC/ASD
Swedish: äska vb to ask CDC
Latin: aerusco, aeruscāre vb to beg W7
Lithuanian: ieškóti, íeško, ieškójo vb to seek, look for LRC
Latvian: ēskāt vb to seek CDC
Czech: jiskati vb to seek CDC
Old Church Slavonic: iskati, ištǫ, išteši vb to seek, search, try LRC
Russian: iskatĭ vb to seek CDC
Sanskrit: ish vb to seek, wish, desire CDC/ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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