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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: albho-   'white, albino'

Semantic Field: White


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ælf, ylfe n.masc elf, elves W7
  ælfen/elfen/elven n.fem female elf OED
  ælf-scīene/ælf-scīeno adj beautiful, of elfin beauty ASD
  albe n alb W7/ASD
Middle English: albe n alb W7
  alfe, alvene n elf, elves CDC
  auborne/auburne/awburne adj auburn W7/CDC
  dauben vb to daub W7
  elf(e), elvene n elf, elves CDC
  elven adj elven LRC
English: abele n white poplar AHD/W7
  alb n white garment (worn at Eucharist) AHD/W7
  albedo n reflected lustre AHD/W7
  albescent adj becoming white AHD
  albino adj/n (organism) lacking genetic pigment AHD/W7
  albite n kind of feldspar AHD/W7
  album n blank notebook; musical record AHD/W7
  albumen n egg white AHD/W7
  aubade n dawn song, morning song AHD/W7
  auburn adj blond, flaxen; reddish-brown AHD/W7
  daub vb to plaster, crudely spread AHD/W7
  elf, elfs/elves n sprite, fairy, incubus AHD/W7
  Elfhelm prop.n Rohan marshal in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  elfin/elven adj re: elves LRC
  Elfstan prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Elfstone prop.n a.k.a. Aragorn in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Elfwine prop.n 19th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Elven prop.adj re: Elves in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Elvish prop.adj re: Elves in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Gandalf prop.n grey/white wizard in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Halfelven prop.n Elrond surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  oaf n fool, dullard AHD/W7
  Oberon prop.n fairy king (medieval folklore) LRC
  Oliver prop.n comrade of Roland, paladin of Charlemagne LRC
Old Dutch: alf n.masc elf ASD
Dutch: abeel n white poplar W7
  elf n.masc elf CDC
Middle Low German: alf n.masc elf CDC
Low German: elf n.masc elf CDC
Old High German: alp n.masc elf CDC
Middle High German: alb/alf/alp, elbe n.masc elf, elves CDC/ASD
German: Alb n.masc elf CDC
  Albino n.masc albino LRC
  Alm/Alp n.fem alpine pasture LRC
  Alp n.masc elf, demon; nightmare CDC
  Elf/Elfe n.masc/fem elf, goblin CDC
Old Norse: alfr n.masc elf ASD
  Álfr prop.n.masc Alf (an elf) LRC
  Gandálfr prop.n.masc Gandalf (Voluspa dwarf) TPE
  gandálfr n.masc wizard, lit. staff-elf LRC
Danish: alf/elv n.masc elf CDC
Swedish: albit n albite W7
  alf/elfva n.masc/fem elf CDC
Latin: albesco, albescere vb to become white AHD
  alburnus adj whitish AHD
  albus, alba, album adj white LRC
Vulgar Latin: alba n.fem dawn W7
Late Latin: albedo n.fem whiteness W7
Middle Latin: alburnus adj auburn, whitish CDC
Medieval Latin: alba n.fem white garment worn at the Eucharist W7
  albellus n.dim white (color) AHD
  alburnus adj whitish W7
Portuguese: albino adj albino W7
Spanish: albada n aubade CDC
  albo adj white W7
Old French: albade n aubade AHD
  Auberon n.masc Oberon W7
  auborne/alborne adj auburn CDC
  dauber vb to coat, plaster W7
Old North French: abiel adj white W7
Middle French: auborne adj blond W7
French: aubade n.fem aubade W7
  Oliver n.masc Oliver [man's name] W7
Old Provençal: alba/auba n.fem dawn W7
  aubada n.fem aubade W7
Italian: alburno adj auburn CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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