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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: alu-, alu-d-, alu-t-   'bitter; ale, beer'

Semantic Fields: Bitter; Beer


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: ol n drink CDC
Old English: ealo/ealu n.neut ale ASD
  ealofæt n.neut ale-cup CDC/ASD
Middle English: ale n ale W7
  alum/alom n alum CDC
English: ale n drink fermented from malt/hops AHD/W7
  alum n aluminum sulfate used as styptic/emetic/astringent CDC/W7
  alumina n aluminum oxide W7
  aluminum n light silvery metallic element W7
Dutch: aal n ale LRC
  aalbes n currant LRC
Old Saxon: alo n ale CDC
  alo-fat n.neut ale-cup ASD
Middle High German: alūn n alum CDC
German: Aluminium n.fem aluminum LRC
Old Norse: öl n ale W7
  ǫlðr n.neut ale; ale-party LRC
Icelandic: öl n.neut ale ASD
Danish: öl n.neut ale CDC
Swedish: öl n.neut ale CDC
Latin: alumen n.neut alum W7
New Latin: alūmina n alumina, aluminum AHD
Old French: alum n alum CDC
  alun n alum CDC
Old Prussian: alu n ale, beer CDC
Lithuanian: alunas n alum CDC
  alus n ale, beer CDC
Latvian: allus n ale, beer CDC
Polish: ałun n alum CDC
Old Church Slavonic: olŭ n cider CDC
Russian: galunu n alum CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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