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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ambhi, m̥bhi   'around, at both sides'

Semantic Fields: Circle; to Wind, Wrap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: imb- adv/prep/pfx about GED
Gaulish: amb- adv/prep/pfx about GED
Old English: bā/bū adj/pron.neut both GED
  be/bi/bī adv/prep/pfx by, concerning RPN
  bēgen adj/pron.du.masc both GED
  ymbe/ymb- adv/prep/pfx at, around LRC
Middle English: alley n alley W7
  ambidexter n double-dealer AHD
  amblen vb to amble AHD
  amis n amice W7
  amphibena n amphisbaena AHD
  amphitheatre n amphitheater AHD
  amphora n amphora AHD
  ba/bo adj/pron both CDC
  be- pfx be- W7
  bo adv too, as well MEV
  both(e)/boþ(e)/bath(e)/booth adj/pron both W7/MEV/CDC
  by/bi/be(o) adv/prep by W7/MEV
  preamble n preamble W7
English: alley n narrow backstreet AHD/W7
  ambi- pfx around, on both sides AHD/W7
  ambidextrous adj using either hand with equal ease AHD
  ambient adj encompassing, surrounding on all sides AHD/W7
  ambiguous adj unclear, doubtful, equivocal AHD
  ambivalence n simultaneous attraction/repulsion AHD/W7
  amble vb.intrans to stroll, saunter, walk slowly AHD/W7
  ambsace n bad luck; snake eyes (dice) AHD/W7
  ambulance n vehicle for treating the injured AHD/W7
  ambulate vb.trans to move from place to place AHD/W7
  ambulatory adj re: walking LRC
  amice n liturgical vestment worn about neck/shoulders under alb AHD/W7
  amph(i)- pfx around, on both sides AHD/W7
  amphibian n amphibious organism AHD/W7
  amphibious adj adapted to both land and water TLL
  amphibole n hornblende AHD/W7
  amphibrach n metrical foot: short/unstressed + long/stressed + short/unstressed syllables AHD/W7
  amphimacer n metrical foot: long/stressed + short/unstressed + long/stressed syllables AHD/W7
  amphimixis n germ cell union in sexual reproduction AHD/W7
  amphioxus n lancelet AHD
  amphisbaena n serpent with head at each end able to move in either direction (classical mythology) AHD
  amphistylar adj having columns on opposite sides AHD
  amphitheater n oval/circular space/building/arena overlooking stage/platform W7
  amphithecium n outer cell layer of spore-containing moss capsule AHD
  amphora n two-handled jar/vase with narrow neck AHD
  amphoteric adj substance acting as both acid and base AHD/W7
  amplexicaul adj with base/stipules clasping stem AHD
  amputate vb.trans to prune, cut/lop off AHD
  andante adj moderately slow (musical direction) AHD/W7
  be- pfx [participial marker] AHD/W7
  both adj/pron two, one and another AHD/W7
  by prep at, through, next/near to AHD/W7
  Bywater prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  funambulist n tightrope walker AHD/W7
  ombudsman n one who investigates complaints and mediates settlements AHD
  perambulate vb to stroll, traverse AHD/W7
  preamble n opening statement AHD/W7
  umlaut n change of vowel sound AHD/W7
British English: amphitheatre n amphitheater LRC
Scots English: baith adj/pron both CDC
Old Frisian: be/bi prep by ASD
  bēde adj/pron both CDC
  bēthe adj/pron both GED
  umbe prep by, about ASD
Middle Dutch: bede adj/pron both ASD
Dutch: beide adj/pron both ASD
  bij prep beside TLL
  by prep by ASD
  om prep after TLL
  omdat conj because TLL
  voorbij prep past, beyond TLL
Old Saxon: be/bi prep by ASD
  bēþia/bēdea adj/pron both GED/ASD
  bēþie adj/pron both CDC
  umbi prep by, about ASD
Low German: beede adj/pron both ASD
Old High German: bēde/beide adj/pron both GED
  bi/pi adv/prep by, concerning RPN/ASD
  umbi/umpi prep/adv by, about GED/ASD
Middle High German: beide adj/pron both CDC
  bi prep by ASD
German: Allee n.fem alley, parkway, avenue LRC
  Ambivalenz n.fem ambivalence AHD
  ambulant adj ambulatory LRC
  Ambulanz n.fem ambulance, acute day ward LRC
  Amphiteather n.fem amphitheater LRC
  bei prep by ASD
  beide adj/pron both ASD
  bis prep until TLL
  um prep at, about, around TLL
  Umlaut n.masc umlaut W7
  vorbei adv past, beyond TLL
Old Norse: bāðar/bæði adj/pron both ASD
  bāðir adj/pron both GED
Icelandic: bāðar adj/pron.fem both CDC
  bāðir adj/pron.masc both CDC
  bæði/bāði adj/pron.neut both CDC
  um(b) prep by, about ASD
Danish: baade adj/pron both ASD
  forbi prep past, beyond TLL
  om prep/conj in, at, about; whether TLL
Swedish: båda adj/pron both CDC
  både adj/pron both ASD
  förbi prep past, beyond TLL
  om prep/conj in, at, about; if, whether TLL
Gothic: bai adj/pron.du both GED/RPN
  bajōþs both CDC
  bi prep by, concerning LRC
Latin: amb(i)- pfx around, on both sides GED
  ambigo, ambigere vb to go round/about AHD/CLD
  ambiguus adj ambiguous AHD
  ambō pron.du both GED/RPN
  ambulo, ambulāre, ambulatus vb to walk W7
  amicio, amicīre, amicuī, amictus vb to wrap around W7
  amictus, amictūs n.masc cloak, outer garment W7
  amictus adj/vb.ptc clad, thrown around W7
  amphisbaena n.fem amphisbaena W7
  amphitheātrum n amphitheater AHD
  amphora n amphora AHD
  -bus dat/ [case ending] RPN
  funambulus n.masc one who walks on a rope W7
  perambulo, perambulare, perambulatus vb to walk through W7
Late Latin: praeambulus adj walking in front of W7
Medieval Latin: preambulum n.neut preamble W7
New Latin: Amphibia prop.n (class name for) amphibians AHD
Old French: alee n.fem path, alley W7
  aler vb to go W7
  ambes pron both W7
  ambler vb to amble AHD
  ambsace n.fem the lowest throw at dice, something worthless or unlucky W7
  amit, amis n cloak, amice AHD
Middle French: allée n.fem path, alley W7
  amit n.masc cloak, amice W7
  préambule n.masc preamble, foreword W7
French: ambulance n.fem ambulance W7
  ambulant adj walking, able to walk W7
Italian: andante vb.ptc going, current, moderately slow W7
  andare vb to go W7
Old Prussian: abbai pron both GED
Lithuanian: abù pron both GED
Latvian: abi pron both GED
Old Church Slavonic: oba, obě, obě adj both LRC
  oba pron both GED
Albanian: mbi prep on, onto IEW
Homeric Greek: ἀμφότερος pron both, each of two LRC
  ʼάμφω pron.du both GED
Greek: ἀμφί/ἀμφ- adv/prep/pfx around, on both sides GED
  amphibios adj amphibious, living double life AHD
  amphitheatron n amphitheater AHD
  ʼάμφω pron.du both RPN
  -φ(ι) loc.sfx around, on both sides RPN
Sanskrit: abhí/abhi- adv/prep to, towards, about GED/RPN
  ubhau pron.du both GED/RPN
  -bhis [case ending] RPN
  -bhyas dat/ [case ending] RPN
  -bhyām inst/dat/abl.du [case ending] RPN
Tocharian B: ant-api pron both GED
Tocharian A: āmpi pron both GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
abl=ablative (case)
dat=dative (case)
du=dual (number)
fem=feminine (gender)
inst=instrumental (case)
loc=locative (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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