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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. an(ə)-   'to breathe, respire, animate'

Semantic Field: to Breathe; Breath


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: anāl n breath GED
  anim n.fem spirit GED
  os-nad n sigh GED/IEW
Middle Breton: anavon spirits, the dead GED
Old English: aneþa n anger, hatred, enmity GED
  or-(o)þ n.neut breath GED
  orðian vb.wk.denom to pant, breathe GED
  ōþian vb to breathe hard GED
Middle English: animadverten vb to animadvert AHD
  animal n animal AHD
  animate adj animate W7
  animosite n animosity W7
English: anemone n windflower: perennial herb with large flowers AHD
  anima n soul, inner self AHD
  animadvert vb to notice, observe AHD/W7
  animal n beast, non-plant AHD/W7
  animate adj alive, possessing life AHD/W7
  animate vb to give life/breath/spirit to W7
  animato adv lively (musical direction) AHD/W7
  animism n belief that nature harbors souls AHD/W7
  animosity n enmity AHD/W7
  animus n mind, disposition AHD/W7
  equanimity n composure under stress AHD/W7
  longanimity n capacity for long-suffering AHD/W7
  magnanimous adj generous, great-spirited AHD/W7
  pusillanimous adj vaccillating, lit. weak-minded AHD/W7
  unanimous adj of one mind AHD/W7
Old Frisian: amma n breath GED
Old Saxon: ando n.wk.masc insult, anger, bitterness GED
Old High German: anto n.wk.masc insult, anger, bitterness GED
  antōn vb.wk to punish, reproach GED
German: animiert adj animate(d) LRC
  Animismus n animism W7
Old Norse: ǫnd n.fem breath LRC
Old Icelandic: anda vb.wk to breathe GED
  andi n.masc breath, wind, spirit GED
  onð n.fem breath GED
Danish: aande n breath TLL
Swedish: ande n breath TLL
Gothic: *uz-anan vb.str.VI to breathe one's last GED
Latin: aequanimitas n.fem calmness, impartiality W7
  anemōne@E% n anemone AHD
  anima n.fem air, wind; breath, soul, spirit GED
  animadverto, animadvertere vb to animadvert, attend to; blame, censure W7
  animal n.neut animal GED
  animalis adj animate, living W7
  animo, animāre, animatus vb to give life to W7
  animosus adj spirited W7
  animus, animi n.masc soul, spirit, animus GED
  magnanimus adj magnanimous W7
  unanimus adj unanimous W7
Late Latin: animositas, animositatis n.fem animosity W7
  longanimis adj patient W7
  longanimitas n.fem longanimity W7
  pusillanimis adj cowardly, pusillanimous W7
Old French: animosite n animosity AHD
Middle French: animosité n.fem animosity W7
Italian: animare vb to animate AHD
  animato vb.ptc animated W7
Albanian: ájër n.masc air GED
Greek: ʼάνεμος n.masc wind GED
  anemōnē n.fem anemone W7
  *ʼα̃νος n face GED
  *ʼη̃νος n face GED
  προσ-ηνής adj well-disposed GED
Old Persian: aura n.masc lord GED
Avestan: ahurō n.masc lord GED
  (par-)åntyå vb.ptc breathing in and out GED
Sanskrit: aṇa adj alive GED
  ániti vb to breathe GED
  ánilas n wind, breath GED
  ásuḥ n vital strength GED
  ásuras n lord, deity characterized by heightened life-force GED
  ānanam n mouth GED
  *ānas n face GED
Tokharian: āñm- n life, spirit GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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