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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ang(h)i-   'eel, worm, snake, serpent'

Semantic Fields: Worm; Snake


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: igil n ophite W7
Middle English: echinus n echinus W7
English: echidna n oviparous burrowing nocturnal mammal AHD/W7
  echin(o)- pfx (re:) prickle, sea urchin AHD/W7
  echinus n sea urchin AHD/W7
  ophic/ophite adj snakelike, serpentine, re: serpent(s) W2I
  ophidian adj re: snakes AHD/W7
  ophiolite n serpentine rock AHD
  ophiology n study of snakes AHD/W7
  Ophite prop.n member of snake-revering cult AHD/W7
  Ophiuchus prop.n equatorial constellation, lit. snake-holder AHD/CDC
  ophiuroid n starfish: sand-star, brittle star AHD
Latin: anguilla n.fem eel W7
  anguis n.masc snake W7
  echidna n.fem viper W7
  echinus n.masc edible sea-urchin W7
New Latin: echidna n.fem oviparous burrowing nocturnal mammal W7
Homeric Greek: ʼόφις n.masc snake, serpent LRC
Greek: enchelys n.fem eel W7
  echidna n.fem viper W7
  echinos n.masc sea-urchin W7
  ophitēs adj ophite W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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