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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ā̆s-, based on it azd-, azg(h)-   'to burn, glow; ash'

Semantic Field: to Burn, Scorch


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: æsce, æscan n.fem ash(es) CDC
  ahse/axse n.fem ash ASD
  asca/æsca n.fem ash GED
  asce/acse, ascan n.fem ash(es) CDC/ASD
  axe/æxe, axan/æxan n ash(es) CDC/ASD
Middle English: a(i)sche, aschen/asches n ash(es) CDC
  ardent/arda(u)nt adj ardent W7/CDC
  ardour/ardeur/ardure n ardor W7/CDC
  ash(e), ashen/ashes n ash(es) CDC
  aske, asken/askes n ash(es) CDC
  ass(h)e/esche n ash W7/CDC
  axe, axen/axes n ash(es) CDC
English: ardent adj passionate, impassioned AHD/W7
  ardor n fire, zeal, passion AHD/W7
  arid adj persistently dry AHD/W7
  arson n crime of burning property AHD/W7
  ash n fire-leavings AHD/W7
  azalea n flowering shrub AHD/W7
  zamia n cycad tree AHD/W7
Scots English: as(s) n ash CDC
Dutch: asch n ash CDC
Old High German: asca/asga n.fem ash GED/CDC
  essa n.fem forge GED
Middle High German: asche/esche n ash CDC
German: Asche n.fem ash CDC
  Esse n.fem forge, smithy, chimney LRC
Old Norse: arinn n hearth, place for sacrificial fire KNW
  esja n saponite (used by smith in forge) KNW
Old Icelandic: aska n.fem ash GED
Danish: aske n ash CDC
Swedish: arne n hearth TLL
  aska n ash CDC
Gothic: *azgo n.fem ash GED
Latin: āra n.fem altar GED
  ardens, ardentis vb.ptc hot, glowing; burning, ardent LRC
  ardeo, ardēre vb to burn, glow W7
  ardor n.masc ardor, energy W7
  ārens, ārentis adj dry, thirsty LRC
  āreō, ārēre vb to dry, be arid GED/CDC
  aridus adj arid W7
Late Latin: ārsiō n arson AHD
New Latin: azalea n.fem azalea W7
  zamia n.fem genus of cycads W7
Portuguese: ardor n ardor CDC
Spanish: ardor n ardor CDC
Old French: ardant adj ardent, burning CDC
  ardor/ard(o)ur n ardor CDC
  ardre vb to burn W7
  ars vb.ptc burnt W7
  arson/ars(o)un n.fem arson W7/CDC
Anglo-French: arson n arson AHD
Middle French: ardent adj fiery, energetic W7
  ardour n.masc ardor W7
French: ardeur n ardor CDC
  aride adj arid W7
Old Occitan: ardor n ardor CDC
Italian: ardore n ardor CDC
Czech: ozd n parched malt GED
Greek: azalea n.fem azalea W7
  azaleos adj dry W7
  ʼάζω adj dry GED
  διψάω vb to thirst after LRC
  πεινάω vb to be hungry LRC
Hittite: hassa- n hearth, ashes GED
Armenian: azazem vb to dry GED/IEW
  ačiun n ash GED
Sanskrit: ā́sas n ash, dust GED
Tokharian: as-/ās- adj dry GED
Tocharian A: āsu vb.past.ptc dried GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
past=past (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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