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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ā̆tos, atta   'daddy, mommy (nursery word)'

Semantic Field: Parent(s)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: æðel/ǣðel/ēðel n.masc/neut homeland, property, inheritance; (name for) OE-rune ASD
  æðele/eðele adj noble ASD
  æþeling n atheling W7
  æþelu n nobility W7
  ēðel-land/ēðel-lond n.neut native land ASD
Middle English: atheling n atheling W7
English: atavism n throwback, recurrence of ancestral form AHD/W7
  athelas n healing herb in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  atheling n prince, nobleman AHD/W7
  Athelney prop.n lit. princes' island CDC
  tawdry adj/n cheap and gaudy (finery) AHD/W7
Old Frisian: ethel/edel adj noble ASD
  ēthel n.masc home, native land ASD
  eþeling/edling n atheling CDC
Old Saxon: eðili adj noble ASD
  eðiling n atheling CDC
  ōðil n.masc home, native land ASD
Old High German: adal n nobility W7
  adaling n atheling CDC
  edili adj noble ASD
  uodal n.neut home, native land ASD
Middle High German: edele adj noble ASD
German: Adel n.masc peerage, nobility, aristocracy LRC
  adeln vb to ennoble, bestow peerage LRC
  adlig adj noble LRC
Runic: oþila n homeland, inheritance; (name for) O-rune LRC
Icelandic: ōðal n.neut home, native land ASD
Swedish: ädel adj noble ASD
Gothic: atta n.wk.masc father LRC
Latin: atavus n.masc ancestor, forefather, grandfather's grandfather AHD/ELD
  atta n father AHD
Middle Latin: adalingus/adelingus n atheling CDC
French: atavisme n atavism AHD
Albanian: atdhe n.masc fatherland LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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