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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. au̯-, au̯ē-   'to plait, weave'

Semantic Fields: to Plait; to Weave


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gewǣde n weed W7
  wæd n.fem weed CDC
  wǣd(e) n.neut weed CDC
  watel/watul n wattle, hurdle; [pl.] twigs, thatching, tiles CDC
Middle English: wat(t)el n wattle, hurdle; [pl.] twigs, thatching, tiles CDC
  wede/wæde n weed CDC
English: wattle n poles interwoven with branches AHD/W7
  weed n cloth, clothing, (mourning) garment AHD/W7
Old Frisian: wēd(e) n weed CDC
Middle Dutch: wade/waede n weed CDC
Old Saxon: wādi n weed CDC
Old Low German: wādi n.neut clothing ASD
Old High German: wadal n bandage W7
  wāt n weed, garment, accoutrements; armor CDC
Middle High German: wāt n weed, garment, accoutrements; armor CDC
German: wat n weed CDC
Bavarian: wadel n wattle, twigs, fir-branches CDC
Swiss German: wedele n wattle, bundle of twigs CDC
Old Norse: auðigr adj rich, wealthy LRC
  auðna, auðnað vb to fall out by fate LRC
  auðr n.masc wealth, riches, treasure; precious objects LRC
  váð n.fem weed; [pl.] clothes LRC
Icelandic: vāð n.fem garment, piece of stuff ASD
Gothic: ga-widan vb to bind together CDC
Lithuanian: austi vb to grow, dawn W7/LD
Avestan: vað vb to clothe CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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