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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 6. au̯-, au̯ed-   'to speak'

Semantic Field: to Speak, Talk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: comedy n comedy W7
  melodie n melody W7
  tragedie n tragedy W7
English: comedy n humorous theatrical drama AHD/W7
  epode n lyric poem with short verses succeeding long AHD/W7
  hymnody n hymn singing AHD/W7
  melody n tunefulness; sounds ordered musically AHD/W7
  monody n ode sung by 1 voice (Greek tragedy) AHD/W7
  ode n type of lyric poem AHD/W7
  parody n literary imitation AHD/W7
  rhapsody n epic poetry adapted for recitation AHD/W7
  Theravada prop.n lit. doctrine of the elders (Buddhism) LRC
  tragedy n tale of sublime downfall AHD/W7
Dutch: ode n ode, song, strophe CDC
Old High German: farwāzan vb to deny W7
  worf n scythe handle W7
German: Komödie n.fem comedy LRC
  Melodie n.fem melody LRC
  ode n ode, song, strophe CDC
  Parodie n.fem parody LRC
  Tragödie n.fem tragedy LRC
Danish: ode n ode, song, strophe CDC
Swedish: ode n ode, song, strophe CDC
Latin: comoedia n.fem comedy W7
  epodos n.masc epode W7
  parodia n.fem parody W7
  tragoedia n.fem tragedy W7
Late Latin: hymnodia n.fem hymnody W7
  melodia n.fem melody W7
  oda/ode n ode, song, strophe CDC
Medieval Latin: monodia n.fem monody W7
Portuguese: oda n ode, song, strophe CDC
Spanish: oda n ode, song, strophe CDC
Old French: melodie n.fem melody W7
Middle French: comedie n.fem comedy W7
  ode n.fem ode, song of praise W7
  tragédie n.fem tragedy W7
Italian: oda n ode, song, strophe CDC
Homeric Greek: ἀείδω vb to sing LRC
Greek: ʼᾴδειν vb to sing CDC
  audē n.fem voice W7
  epōidos adj sung/said after W7
  kōmōidia n.fem comedy W7
  melōidia n.fem music, chanting, melody W7
  monōidia n.fem monody, act of singing alone W7
  monōidos adj singing alone W7
  parōidia n.fem parody W7
  rhapsōidia n.fem rhapsody: recitation of selections from epic poetry W7
  tragōidia n.fem tragedy W7
  hymnōidia n.fem hymnody W7
  ʼῳδή/ἀοιδή n ode, song, strophe CDC
Pali: theravāda n doctrine of the elders W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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