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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: au̯es-   'to shine'

Semantic Field: to Shine, Glisten


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: earendel/earendil n.masc ray, shining light, morning star ASD
  eást(a) n.masc the east ASD
  eástan/eásten/ēsten adv eastward, from the east ASD
  eást(an)/eásten adj east, easterly ASD
  ēaster-mōnaþ n.masc April, lit. Easter-month ASD
  ēastern(e) adj eastern W7/ASD
  ēastre n.neut Easter W7/ASD
  ēast-we(a)rd adv eastward ASD
Middle English: aureat adj aureate W7
  aureole n heavenly crown worn by saints W7
  aurora n aurora: dawn AHD
  est n east W7
  estern/easter adj eastern W7
  estre n Easter W7
  orfrey n orphrey W7
  oriflamble n oriflamme W7
  orpiment n orpiment W7
English: Astron prop.n Shire calendar's April in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  aureate adj of golden color/brilliance AHD/W7
  aureole n nimbus, sacred radiant light (in art) AHD/W7
  auric adj re: gold (esp. when trivalent) AHD/W7
  auriferous adj gold-bearing AHD/W7
  aurora n dawn; arches/streamers of light in night sky LRC
  dariole n small cooking mold AHD
  dory n small flat-bottomed fishing boat AHD/CDC
  Eärendil prop.n morning/evening star in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  east adv/adj eastward; re: the east W7
  east n general direction of sunrise AHD/W7
  Eastemnet prop.n eastern Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Easter prop.n Christian feast commemorating Christ's Resurrection LRC
  Easterlings Gondor enemies in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  eastern adj re: the east AHD/W7
  Eastfarthing prop.n Shire quadrant in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Eastfold prop.n Rohan district in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Eastlands prop.n Easterling lands in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  eastward adv to/toward the east  
  eo- pfx oldest, earliest AHD/W7
  Eos prop.n goddess of dawn (Greek mythology) LRC
  eosin n red fluorescent dye AHD/W7
  moidore n former Brazilian/Portuguese gold coin AHD
  or n heraldic gold/yellow color AHD/W7
  oriflamme n inspirational banner/symbol AHD/W7
  oriole n Old World passerine bird AHD/W7
  ormolu n brass resembling gold, lit. ground gold AHD/W7
  oroide n alloy resembling gold used in cheap jewelry AHD/W7
  orphrey n elaborate embroidery AHD/W7
  orpiment n orange/yellow arsenic trisulfide (used as pigment) AHD/W7
  ostmark n E German monetary unit AHD
  Ostrogoth prop.n eastern Goth LRC
Old Frisian: aesta/āsta adv east CDC
Frisian: āsta adv east CDC
Dutch: oost adv east CDC
  oosten n east TLL
Old Saxon: ōstan/ōstana adv east CDC
Middle Low German: osten(e) adv east CDC
Old High German: Orendil/Erentil prop.n medieval hero, lit. luminous wanderer IEW
  ōstana adv east CDC
  ōstar adv to the east W7
  ōstarun Easter W7
  ōstrōni adj eastern W7
Middle High German: ōsten(e) adv east CDC
German: osten adv east CDC
  Ostern n.fem Easter LRC
Langobardic: Auriwandalo prop.n Lombardic prince, lit. luminous wanderer LRC
Old Norse: Aurvandil prop.n Prose Edda hero, lit. luminous wanderer ICE
  austan adv east LRC
  austmaðr n.masc Easterner, Norwegian LRC
  Austri prop.n.masc East LRC
Icelandic: austr adv east CDC
Danish: öst(er) adv east CDC
Swedish: öster adv east CDC
Latin: aureolus, aureola, aureolum adj.dim golden, aureate W7
  aureus, aurea, aureum adj golden, aureate LRC
  aurifer adj producing gold W7
  auripigmentum n.neut orpiment W7
  Aurora prop.n.fem goddess of dawn W7
  aurora n.fem dawn W7
  aurum n.neut gold W7
  Phrygius adj Phrygian W7
  pigmentum n.neut paint, colors to paint with W7
Late Latin: aureatus adj aureate, adorned with gold CDC
  Ostrogothi the Ostrogoths W7
Medieval Latin: aureatus adj decorated with gold W7
  aureola n.fem aureole W7
  aurifrigium n.neut orphrey W7
Portuguese: este adv east CDC
  ouro n gold TLL
Spanish: este adv east CDC
  oro n gold TLL
Old French: (h)est adv east CDC
Middle French: or n.masc gold W7
  orfreis n.fem orphrey, a bird of prey W7
  oriflamble n.masc oriflamme, red banner W7
  orpiment n.masc an herb W7
French: or n gold TLL
  oriol n.masc oriole W7
Italian: oro n gold TLL
Lithuanian: auksas n.masc gold W7
  auszra n dawn CDC
  auszta n the morning star CDC
  auszti vb to dawn CDC
Latvian: aust n dawn CDC
  austrums n.masc east LRC
Doric: ἀώς n.fem dawn, morning CDC
Laconian: ἀβώρ n.fem dawn, morning CDC
Aeolic: αʼύως n.fem dawn, morning CDC
Homeric Greek: ἠώς n.fem dawn, daybreak, morning LRC
Attic: εγ̓̀ως n.fem dawn, morning CDC
Greek: ʼΗώς prop.n.fem Eos LRC
Avestan: ushā n dawn LRC
Sanskrit: uṣās n dawn LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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