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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: au-lo-s : ēu-l-   'tube, pipe, aulos'

Semantic Field: Round (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Gaelic: carull/caireall n melody, harmony CDC
Manx: carval n carol CDC
Breton: koroll n dance CDC
  korolla, korolli n to dance, move in cadence CDC
Cornish: carol n choir, concert CDC
Welsh: carol(i) n carol, song CDC
  coroli n to dance, move in a circle CDC
Middle English: carol/carol(l)e n carol, ring CDC/W7
English: alveolus n small pit/cavity AHD/W7
  aulos n flute, reed instrument W2I
  carol n old round dance with song AHD/W7
  hydraulic adj re: water/liquid AHD/W7
German: hydraulisch adj hydraulic LRC
Old Norse: hvannjōli n stalk of angelica W7
Latin: alveolus n.masc tray, basin W7
  alveus n.masc cavity, hollow W7
  alvus n.masc belly W7
  choraula n.masc choral song/accompanist W7
  hydraulicus adj hydraulic W7
Middle Latin: carola n carol, Christmas song CDC
New Latin: alveolus n.masc tray, basin W7
Spanish: carola n carol, Christmas song CDC
Old French: carole n.fem carol, Christmas song CDC
Italian: carola n carol, Christmas song CDC
Homeric Greek: αʼύλη n flute music LRC
  αὐλός n.masc flute, reed instrument; tube LRC
Greek: aulein vb to play a reed instrument W7
  hydraulikos adj hydraulic W7
  hydraulis n.fem hydraulic organ W7
  choraulēs n.masc choral accompanist W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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