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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: baba-   'babble, babbling, unclear speech'

Semantic Field: to Speak, Talk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: báb n baby, girl RPN
  bábán n baby RPN
Irish: baban n baby CDC
Manx: bab(an) n baby CDC
Middle English: baban n babe, baby RPN
  babe n babe RPN
  babee/babi n.dim baby CDC/RPN
  bab(e)len vb to babble CDC
English: babble n meaningless speech-like sounds W7
  babble vb to chatter, prattle, utter meaningless sounds W7
  babe n baby LRC
  baby/babie n infant, new-born CDC
  babysit, babysat vb.str.intrans to care for children W7
Dutch: babbelen vb to babble CDC
Low German: babbelen vb to babble CDC
Middle High German: buobe n little boy RPN
German: bappeln/bappern vb to babble CDC
  Bube/Bubi n.masc lad, little boy LRC
Swiss German: Buaeb n.masc lad, little boy LRC
Icelandic: babbla vb to babble CDC
Danish: bable vb to babble CDC
Old Czech: bábě n doll, little girl RPN
Czech: bábenec n youngster RPN
Greek: βάρβαρος adj/n.masc foreign; non-Greek person LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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