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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bhā-, bhō-, bhə-   'to shine, glisten'

Semantic Field: to Shine, Glisten


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bān adj white GED
Old English: beācen/bēc(e)n/bēcun n.neut sign, token, beacon CDC/ASD
  berie/ber(i)ge/berigie n.fem berry W7/ASD
  bīecnan/bēcnian vb to beckon W7/CDC
  bōnian vb.wk to polish GED
Middle English: baner(e) n banner MEV/W7
  baneret n banneret W7
  beken(e) n beacon W7
  beknen/becnen/beknien vb to beckon W7/CDC
  berie/bery(e) n berry W7/CDC
  boye n buoy W7
  epiphanie n epiphany W7
  fantasie n fantasy W7
  fantasme n phantasm W7
  fanto(s)me n phantom W7
  mulberie/murberie n mulberry W7
  panten vb to pant W7
English: banderilla n barbed decorated dart used in bullfight AHD
  banderole n long forked flag AHD/W7
  bandoleer/bandolier n belt worn over shoulder across chest AHD/W7
  banner n staff-hung cloth marking rallying point AHD/W7
  banneret n knight leading under his own banner AHD/W7
  beacon n signal fire (usually on a high place) AHD/W7
  beckon vb to summon via signal AHD/W7
  berry n small pulpy fruit AHD/W7
  buoy n float AHD/W7
  diaphanous adj fine in texture, nearly transparent AHD/W7
  emphasis n forcefulness in expression conveying importance AHD/W7
  epiphany n feast celebrating Christ's first appearance to Gentiles AHD/W7
  fantasize vb to fancy, imagine, hallucinate LRC
  fantasy n hallucination AHD/W7
  frambesia n yaws: chronic infectious disease AHD
  Goldberry prop.n Bombadil's wife in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  gooseberry n spiny European shrub with edible berries AHD
  hierophant n priest in ancient Greece AHD/W7
  mulberry n tree with edible purple berrylike fruit AHD/W7
  pant vb to breathe quickly/spasmodically in labored manner AHD/W7
  Phaethon prop.n son of Helios the Sun (Greek mythology) LRC
  -phane n.sfx substance having certain quality AHD/W7
  phanerogam n spermatophyte, flowering seed plant AHD/W7
  phantasm n product of fantasy AHD/W7
  phantasmagoria n optical illusion AHD/W7
  phantom n apparition, something sensed but insubstantial AHD/W7
  phase n state in a recurring cycle AHD/W7
  phen(o)- pfx re: observable characteristic AHD
  phenomenon n observable fact/event AHD/W7
  phos- pfx light, luminous impression AHD/W7
  phosphene n luminous impression due to retinal excitation AHD/W7
  phot n cgs unit of illumination AHD/W7
  phot(o)- pfx light, radiant energy AHD
  photon n quantum of light/radiant energy W7
  sycophant n parasite, servile self-seeking flatterer AHD/W7
  theophany n visible manifestation of deity AHD/W7
  tiffany n a kind of sheer silk gauze AHD/W7
British English: fantasise vb to fantasize LRC
Old Frisian: bāken/bēken n sign, beacon CDC
Middle Dutch: bere/beze n berry CDC
Dutch: baak n sign, beacon CDC
  bes n.fem berry ASD
  bezie n berry CDC
  framboos n raspberry TLL
Old Saxon: beri n.neut berry ASD
  bōkan n sign, beacon CDC
  bōknian vb to beckon CDC
Middle Low German: bere n berry CDC
Low German: bāke n sign, beacon CDC
  bōnen vb.wk to scour, polish GED
Old High German: beri n.neut berry W7/ASD
  bouhhan/pouchan n sign, beacon CDC/ASD
  bouhnen vb to beckon CDC
Middle High German: ber(e) n berry CDC
  bouchen n sign, beacon CDC
  büenen vb.wk to scour, polish GED
German: Bake n.fem sign, beacon, landmark CDC
  Beere n.fem berry LRC
  Fantasie n.fem fantasy LRC
Old Norse: bākna vb to beckon CDC
  ber n.neut berry ASD
Old Icelandic: benda vb.wk to give a sign GED
Icelandic: bākn n sign, beacon CDC
  ber n berry CDC
Danish: bær n berry CDC
  kirsebær n cherry TLL
Swedish: bär n berry CDC
  körsbär n cherry TLL
Gothic: *bandwa n.fem sign GED
  bandwjan vb.wk to indicate, give sign GED
  bandwō n.fem sign W7/GED
  basi n.neut berry ASD
Latin: Phaethon n.masc Phaethon W7
  phantasma n.fem phantasm W7
  sycophanta n.fem swindler, informer, sycophant W7
Vulgar Latin: *bandāria n banner AHD
  phantasio, phantasiāre vb to fantasize: hallucinate W7
Late Latin: bandum n banner AHD
  epiphania n.fem epiphany W7
  hierophanta n.masc priest W7
  phaenomenon n.neut phenomenon W7
  theophania n.fem theophany W7
Middle Latin: *bandaria n banner CDC
  bandum n flag, standard CDC
Medieval Latin: bandum n.neut flag GED
  diaphanus adj see-through, diaphanous W7
  throphania n.fem theophany W7
New Latin: phasis n.fem (lunar) phase, appearance of star W7
Portuguese: bandeira n banner CDC
Spanish: bandera n.fem banner GED
  banderilla n.fem banderilla LRC
  banderola n.dim little banner CDC
  bandolera n.fem bandoleer LRC
Old French: banere n.masc banner W7
  baneret n.masc banneret W7
  banerolle n.dim little banner CDC
  fantasme n.masc phantasm, phantasmagoria W7
  ori-flame/orie-flambe n.fem red banner (of Charlemagne) GED
Middle French: bandouliere n bandolier W7
  epiphanie n.fem epiphany, apparition of deity W7
  fantosme n.masc ghost, phantom W7
  pantaisier vb to fantasize: hallucinate W7
French: banderole n.fem banner W7
  bandière n banner CDC
  bandoulière n bandoleer AHD
  ban(n)ière n.fem banner GED/CDC
  phanérogame adj seed plant, flowering plant W7
  phantasmagorie n.fem phantasmagoria W7
  phantasme n.masc phantasm W7
Old Occitan: bandieira/bannieira n banner CDC
Italian: banda n.fem troop, division GED
  bander(u)ola n.fem.dim pennant, streamer, little banner W7/CID/CDC
  bandiera n.fem banner GED
  bando n.masc summons GED
Gheg: bâj vb to do, make IEW
Tosk: bënj vb to do, make IEW
Greek: diaphainein vb to show through W7
  διαφανής adj transparent; red-hot LRC
  diaphanēs adj diaphanous W7
  emphainein vb to indicate W7
  emphasis n.fem emphasis, exposition W7
  epiphaneia n.fem appearance, epiphany W7
  hierophantēs n.masc hierophant W7
  sykophantēs adj informer W7
  Phaethōn n.masc Phaethon W7
  phainesthai vb to appear W7
  phainomenon vb.ptc.pass appearing W7
  phainomenos vb.ptc.pass appearing W7
  φαίνω vb to show GED
  -phaneia afx appearance W7
  φανερός adj bright, visible GED
  φανή n torch GED
  -phanēs afx appearing W7
  φᾱνός adj bright, glad RPN
  phantasia n.fem appearance, imagination W7
  phantasioun vb to have hallucinations W7
  phantasma n.neut hallucination W7
  phasis n.fem (lunar) phase, appearance of star W7
  phatazein vb to present to the mind W7
  φάω vb to shine, give light RPN
  φάως n light RPN
  φωνή n.fem voice, sound LRC
  phōs, phōtis n.neut light W7
Late Greek: epiphania n.fem appearance, epiphany W7
  theophan(e)ia n.fem theophany W7
Medieval Greek: βάνδον n flag GED
Classical Armenian: banam vb to open LRC
Sanskrit: bhā́ti vb to shine, appear GED
  bhā́nam n shining, appearance GED
  bhā́mas n shine, light GED
  bhā́lam n radiance GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pass=passive (voice)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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