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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. bhā-   'to speak'

Semantic Field: to Speak, Talk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: antef(e)n n anthem, antiphon ASD
  bannan/bonnan vb to summon W7/ASD
  bēn n prayer W7
  bōian vb to boast RPN
  ge-bann n ban CDC
Middle English: abando(u)nen vb to abandon W7
  affabil adj affable AHD
  antem n anthem W7
  ban n ban W7
  bane n banns W7
  banishen/banysen vb to banish W7/CDC
  bannen vb to curse, summon W7
  ben(e) n prayer CDC
  bone/boon/boyn(e) n boon, request MEV/W7/CDC
  confessen vb to confess W7
  defamen vb to defame W7
  diffamen vb to defame W7
  enfaunt n infant W7
  fable n fable W7
  faerie/fairie n fay land/realm/people W7
  faie/fay(e) n fay W7
  fame n fame W7
  famous adj famous W7
  fate n fate W7
  ineffable adj ineffable W7
  infamous adj infamous W7
  -phonie n -phony W7
  preface n preface W7
  profes adj having professed one's vows W7
  professen vb to profess W7
  prophete n prophet W7
  symphonie n symphony W7
English: abandon vb.trans to give up, disavow rights/interest AHD/W7
  affable adj friendly, pleasant, talkative AHD/W7
  anthem n hymn sung responsively/antiphonally AHD/W7
  antiphon n psalm/verse sung antiphonally AHD/W7
  aphonia n loss of voice and all but whispered speech AHD/W7
  apophasis n allusion by denying mention AHD
  arriere-ban n king's proclamation calling vassals to arms AHD/W7
  ban n order, decree, summons, proclamation LRC
  ban vb to curse AHD/W7
  banal adj trite, lacking freshness/originality AHD/W7
  bandit n outlaw, brigand AHD/W7
  banish vb.trans to require to leave country AHD/W7
  banns public announcement (in church) of proposed marriage AHD/W7
  boon n favor, benefit AHD/W7
  cacophonous adj harsh-sounding AHD/W7
  confess vb to admit, acknowledge AHD/W7
  contraband n illegal/prohibited traffic AHD/W7
  defame vb.trans to disgrace AHD/W7
  euphemism n subsitute for offensive expression AHD/W7
  euphony n sweet pleasing sound AHD/W7
  fable n story, fictitious narrative AHD/W7
  fabliau n short, coarse, cynical tale in verse AHD/W7
  fabulous adj legendary, re: fable AHD/W7
  fado n plaintive Portuguese folk song AHD/W7
  Faerie prop.n elven land in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  fairy n mythical small magic being AHD/W7
  fame n reputation, public esteem AHD/W7
  famous adj widely known AHD/W7
  fandango n lively Spanish/American dance AHD/W7
  fantoccini n puppets moved by strings or other devices AHD/W7
  fate n destiny, principle by which things happen AHD/W7
  fay adj possessed, enchanted LRC
  fay n elf, fairy W7
  homophone n word sounding like another but different in spelling/meaning TLL
  ineffable adj indescribable, incapable of verbal expression AHD/W7
  infamous adj having worst kind of reputation AHD/W7
  infant n child in earliest period of life AHD/W7
  infantry n trained soldiers armed/equipped to fight on foot AHD/W7
  -phasia n.sfx speech disorder AHD/W7
  -phone n.sfx sound AHD/W7
  phone n speech sound considered as mere physical event AHD/W7
  phoneme n smallest unit of speech AHD/W7
  phonetic adj re: sounds of speech AHD/W7
  phon(o)- pfx sound; voice, speech AHD
  -phony n.sfx sound AHD/W7
  Polyphemus prop.n a certain cyclops (Greek mythology) LRC
  preface n eucharistic prayer of thanksgiving AHD/W7
  profess vb to take religious vows AHD/W7
  prophet n divinely inspired speaker AHD/W7
  symphony n consonance of sounds AHD/W7
Old Frisian: ban/bon n ban CDC
  banna/bonna vb to summon ASD
Old Dutch: ban n ban CDC
  bannen vb to ban, prohibit CDC
Dutch: bannen vb to banish, exile CDC
Old Saxon: ban n ban CDC
Old High German: ban(n) n ban CDC
  bannan vb to command W7
  pannan vb to summon ASD
Middle High German: ban(n) n ban CDC
  bannen vb to ban, prohibit ASD
German: Bandit n.masc bandit LRC
  Bann n.masc ban; spell CDC
  bannen vb to ban, banish, avert LRC
  Fabel n.fem fable LRC
  Infanterie n.fem infantry LRC
Old Norse: banna, bannað vb to ban, forbid, prohibit LRC
  bōn n.fem boon, petition W7/ASD
Icelandic: bann n ban, interdict, prohibition, excommunication CDC
  banna vb to ban, forbid CDC
  bōn n prayer, petition CDC
Danish: ban(d) n ban, interdict, prohibition, excommunication CDC
  bande vb to ban, swear CDC
  bön n prayer, petition CDC
Swedish: bann n ban, interdict, prohibition, excommunication CDC
  banna vb to ban, chide, reprove CDC
  bön n prayer, petition CDC
Gothic: bandwjan vb to signify ASD
  *bannan vb to proclaim, announce CDC
Latin: *adfor, adfārī/affārī vb.dep to accost, address, speak to, say farewell AHD/CLD
  affābilis adj affable AHD
  confiteor, confitēri, confessus vb.dep to admit, confess W7
  diffamo, diffāmare vb to defame W7
  effabilis adj capable of being expressed W7
  effor, effāri vb to speak out W7
  fabula n.fem play, fable, conversation W7
  fabulosus adj fabulous W7
  facundus, facunda, facundum adj fluent, eloquent LRC
  fāma, fāmae n.fem talk, report LRC
  famosus adj famous W7
  fans, fantis vb.pres.ptc speaking W7
  fās n.neut right LRC
  Fata prop.n.fem goddess of fate W7
  fateor, fatēri vb to allow, admit, acknowledge W7
  fatum, fatī n.neut fate, divine utterance LRC
  for, fārī, fātus vb.dep to talk LRC
  ineffabilis vb.ptc ineffable, impossible to erase W7
  infamis adj ill-famed, dishonoured W7
  infans, infantis adj/n.masc incapable of speech; infant LRC
  Polyphemus n.masc Polyphemus W7
  praefatio, praefationis n.fem foreword W7
  praefor, praefāri, praefātus vb to say beforehand W7
  profiteor, profitērī, professus vb to profess, confess W7
  propheta n.fem prophet W7
  symphonia n.fem symphony W7
Late Latin: antiphōna n.masc anthem, antiphon W7
  apophasis n apophasis AHD
  euphonia n.fem euphony W7
  professus vb.ptc professed, taught W7
Middle Latin: bannalis adj banal CDC
  ban(nd)ire vb to ban, banish, proclaim CDC
  bannum/bandum n ban, edict, banishment CDC
Medieval Latin: bannus n.masc ban W7
  contrabannum n.neut contraband, against the ban W7
  defamō, defamāre vb to defame W7
  prephatia n.fem foreword W7
New Latin: aphonia n.fem aphonia, impossibility to make a sound W7
  -phasia sfx of speech W7
  phoneticus adj phonetic W7
Portuguese: bandir vb to banish CDC
  bando n ban, edict, banishment CDC
  fado n.masc sad/plaintive folk song W7
  falar vb to speak TLL
Old Spanish: bandir vb to banish CDC
Spanish: bando n.masc ban, edict, banishment CDC
  hablar vb to speak TLL
Old French: abandoner/abanduner vb to abandon CDC
  affable adj affable AHD
  ariere-ban n arriere-ban AHD
  ban n ban, edict, banishment CDC
  banal adj shared by tenants of feudal jurisdiction AHD
  banir vb to ban, make known GED
  ban(n)ir vb to banish CDC
  fable n.fem fable W7
  fabliau n.masc fable, popular medieval tale W7
  faerie n.fem fay-land, magical power W7
  fa(i)e n.fem fay OED
  fame n.fem report, fame W7
  herban n military service ban (summons) AHD
  -phonie sfx sound W7
  profes adj having professed one's vows W7
  prophete n.masc prophet W7
  symphonie n.fem symphony W7
Middle French: abandon n.masc surrender, abandon W7
  affable adj affable W7
  ban n.masc feudal service W7
  banal adj banal, common; re: compulsory feudal service W7
  bandon n power, control AHD/W7
  banisse vb.ptc banished W7
  confesser vb to confess W7
  defamer vb to defame W7
  diffamer vb to defame W7
  enfant n.masc child W7
  fable n.fem fable, tale with moral content W7
  fameux adj famous W7
  fe(i)e n.fem fay W7
  ineffable adj ineffable, impossible to tell W7
  infanterie n.fem infantry W7
  preface n.fem foreword W7
French: arrière-ban n arriere-ban W7
  banal adj banal, common, vulgar W7
  bannir vb to banish CDC
  euphonie n.fem euphony W7
  fabliau n.masc fabliau, medieval tale or song W7
  fée n.fem fay OED
  phonème n.masc speech sound, phoneme W7
Old Occitan: ban n ban, edict, banishment CDC
  banal adj banal CDC
Provençal: bandon n ban CDC
Old Italian: infante n.masc boy, foot soldier W7
  infanteria n.fem infantry W7
Italian: abandonnare vb to abandon CDC
  bandire vb to ban, banish, proclaim, make known GED/CDC
  bandito n.masc bandit W7
  bando n ban, edict, banishment CDC
  contrabbando n.masc contraband W7
  fante n.masc infantryman, jack W7/CID
  fantòccio n.masc doll, puppet W7/CID
Russian Church Slavic: bajati vb to tell, to heal RPN
Albanian: fat n.masc fate LRC
Greek: antiphōnos adj responsive, sounding in answer W7
  ἀπόφᾰσις n.fem denial, negation, apophasis AHD/LS
  aphōnia n.fem aphonia W7
  aphōnos adj voiceless W7
  euphēmismos n.masc figure of speech: improving the sound of W7
  euphēmos adj auspicious, sounding good W7
  euphōnia n.fem euphony, harmony W7
  euphōnos adj sweet-voiced, musical W7
  kakophōnos adj cacophonous W7
  Polyphēmos n.masc Polyphemus W7
  προφητεία n.fem prophecy LRC
  προφητεύω vb to prophesy LRC
  προφήτης n.masc prophet LRC
  prophētēs n.masc prophet, seer W7
  symphōnia n.fem symphony W7
  symphōnos adj concordant in sound W7
  phanai vb to speak W7
  -phasia afx speech W7
  phasis n.fem utterance W7
  φήμη n ominous voice, oracle RPN
  phēmē n.fem speech W7
  φη̃μι vb to say LRC
  phōnein vb to sound W7
  phōnē n.fem voice W7
  phōnēma, phōnēmat- n.neut speech sound, utterance W7
  phōnētikos adj of sounds, of voice W7
  -phōnia sfx act of sounding W7
  -phōnos sfx sounding W7
Classical Armenian: ban n speech, word LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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