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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhares-, bhores-   'point, bristle, stubble (with formants)'

Semantic Fields: Point; Hard


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: barr n summit GED/IEW
Old English: bærs/bears n bass, perch AHD/IEW
  bursta n.fem bristle GED/IEW
  byrst n.fem bristle GED/IEW
Middle English: base/bace n bass W7/CDC
  bristil n bristle W7
  brust n bristle W7
  fastidious adj fastidious W7
English: bass n edible spiny-finned fish AHD/W7
  bristle n short stiff coarse hair AHD/W7
  farinaceous adj starchy AHD/W7
  farraginous adj formed of various materials AHD/W7
  fastidious adj scornful AHD/W7
  fastigiate adj narrowing toward top AHD/W7
  fastigium n period of greatest (disease) intensity AHD/W7
Frisian: boarstel n.masc/fem bristle ASD
Dutch: borstel n.masc bristle ASD
Old High German: borst n.neut bristle IEW
  burst n.masc bristle IEW
  bursta n.fem bristle GED/IEW
  bursti/pursta n.fem bristle ASD
Middle High German: bürste n brush IEW
German: Barsch n.masc bass LRC
  Borste n.fem bristle IEW
  Bürste n.fem brush LRC
  bürsten vb to brush LRC
Old Icelandic: barr n.fem conifer GED/IEW
  burst n.fem bristle GED/IEW
Icelandic: burst n.fem bristle ASD
Danish: bōrste n.masc/fem bristle ASD
Swedish: borst n.masc bristle ASD
  borste n brush TLL
Latin: fastidiosus adj disgusting W7
  fastidium n.neut disgust W7
  fastīgium n.neut tip, top GED/IEW
  fastus n.masc arrogance W7
New Latin: fastigiatus adj narrowing towards the top W7
  fastigium n.neut top, summit W7
Sanskrit: bhr̥ṣtís̄ n point, tip, edge GED/IEW


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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