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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bhedh-   'to dig, stab, pierce, embed'

Semantic Fields: to Dig, Delve; to Press; Knife (tool)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: bedd n grave RPN
Gaulish: bedo- n canal, ditch RPN
Old English: bed(d) n bed W7/ASD
Middle English: bed(de) n bed W7/CDC
  fosse n fosse W7
English: bed n furniture for sleeping/reclining AHD/W7
  bed vb to put to bed, place in bed W2I
  embed/imbed vb to enclose, set solidly W2I
  fossa n anatomical pit/cavity AHD/W7
  fosse n moat, ditch AHD/W7
  fossil n trace of plant/animal of past geological age AHD/W7
  fossorial adj adapted to digging AHD/W7
Old Frisian: bed n bed CDC
Dutch: bed n.neut bed CDC/ASD
Old Saxon: bed n.neut bed CDC/ASD
Old High German: bet(ti)/petti n.neut bed CDC/ASD
Middle High German: bet(te) n.neut bed CDC
German: Bett n.neut bed CDC
Old Norse: beðr n.masc bed ASD
  Bǫðvarr prop.n.masc Bothvar LRC
  bǫðvarr n.masc battle LRC
Icelandic: beðr n bed CDC
Danish: bed n bed ASD
Swedish: bädd n.neut bed CDC/ASD
Gothic: badi n.neut bed CDC/ASD
Latin: fodiō, fodere, fōdī, fossum vb to dig (up), pierce, stab RPN
  fossa n.fem dip, hole in ground W7
  fossilis adj dug up W7
Medieval Latin: fossorius adj fossorial, adapted to digging W7
New Latin: fossa n.fem anatomical pit/depression W7
Old French: fosse n.fem dip, hole in ground W7
Lithuanian: bãdas n.masc starvation LRC
  badaũ, badýti vb to pierce, gore RPN
  bedù, bèsti vb to dig, bury RPN
Old Church Slavonic: bodǫ, bosti vb to stick, prick RPN
Hittite: pád-da-i, píd-da-i to dig RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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