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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bheg-, bheng-   'to bang, break, smash'

Semantic Field: to Break


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bongid vb to break, reap RPN
Old English: banc n.fem bank CDC
  benc n.fem bench W7/ASD
Middle English: bank(e)/bonk(e)/bonkke/banc n bank W7/MEV/CDC
  benk/bynk/bench n bench CDC/W7
English: bang vb to bump, strike against AHD/W7
  bank n hill, ridge; pile, mound AHD/W7
  bank n bench for (galley) rowers AHD/W7
  bank n money/finance business W7
  Banks prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  banquet n great/ceremonious feast AHD/W7
  banquette n raised way inside parapet/trench for gun(ner)s AHD/W7
  bantling n very young child AHD/W7
  bench n long seat for two/more persons AHD/W7
  bhang n hemp, cannabis AHD/W7
  bunco n swindling game/scheme AHD/W7
  bungle vb to act/work awkwardly/clumsily AHD/W7
Dutch: bank n.fem bank: bench ASD
  bengel n bell CDC
  bengelen vb to ring a bell CDC
Old Saxon: bank n.fem bank: bench ASD
  benki n bench CDC
Low German: bangeln vb.freq to bang, beat, strike CDC
  bangen vb to bang, beat, strike CDC
Old High German: banch/panch n.fem bench CDC/ASD
  bank n bank: bench W7
Middle High German: banc/bank n bank: bench ASD/CDC
  bengel n club CDC
German: bank n.fem bank: bench W7/ASD
  bänkling n bastard W7
Old Norse: bakki n bank: bench W7
  bang n a hammering CDC
  bekkr n.masc bank: bench ASD
Icelandic: banga vb to bang, hammer W7
  *banki n bank CDC
  bekkr n bench CDC
Norwegian: bank n a beating CDC
  banka vb to bang, beat CDC
Danish: bakke n bank: hill, hillock CDC
  bank n a beating CDC
  banke vb to bang, beat CDC
  bænk n bank: bench CDC
  bänk n bank: bench ASD
Old Swedish: bånga vb to bang, hammer CDC
Swedish: backe n bank: hill, hillock CDC
  bång n a hammering CDC
  bänk n bank: bench ASD
Middle Latin: bancus n.masc bank: bench CDC
Portuguese: banca n bench CDC
  banco n bank: business CDC
Spanish: banca n.fem bank: bench W7
  banco n bank: business CDC
  banquete n banquet CDC
Old French: banc n bank: bench AHD
  banquet n.dim banquet AHD
Middle French: banquet n.masc banquet W7
French: banc/banque n bank: bench CDC
  banc n bank: business CDC
  banquet n banquet CDC
  banquette n.fem bench, banquette W7
Old Occitan: banc n bank: business CDC
  banca n bank: bench CDC
Provençal: banca n bank: bench AHD
  banqueta n.fem.dim small bench W7
Old Italian: banca n.fem bank: bench W7
  banchetto n.masc banquet W7
Italian: banca n bank: bench CDC
  banchetto n banquet CDC
  banco n bank: business CDC
Armenian: bekanem vb to break RPN
Persian: bang n bhang CDC
Sanskrit: bhanákti vb to break, shatter RPN
  bhangā n bhang CDC
Hindi: bhāṅg/bhung n bhang W7/CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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