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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. bhel-, and bhlē-, bhlō-, bhlə-   'leaf, foil, blade; bloom'

Semantic Fields: Leaf; Flower


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bláth n flower RPN
Old English: blǣd n.masc breath, life, spirit LRC
  blǣd n.neut blade LRC
  blēd n.fem stalk, fruit, flower RPN/ASD
  blēdan vb to bleed W7/ASD
  blētsian/bletsi(g)an/blēdsian vb to bless W7/ASD/CDC
  blōd n.str.neut blood GED
  blōma n.masc bloom, lump of metal W7/ASD
  blōstm(a)/blōsma/blōsþma n.masc blossom W7/ASD/CDC
  blōt n.neut blood, sacrifice ASD
  blōt-mōnaþ n.masc November, lit. blood-month (of sacrifice) ASD
  blōwan vb to blow W7
  cerfille/cærfille/cyrfille n.fem chervil W7/ASD
Northumbrian: bloedsia/bl(o)etsia vb to bless ASD
Middle English: blad(e)/bladde n blade W7/CDC
  blede n fruit, blossom CDC
  bleden vb to bleed W7
  bless(i)en/blescen/bletsien vb to bless W7/CDC
  blom n bloom: flower, perfection MEV
  blome n bloom: lump of metal W7
  blood(e)/blod(e)/bl(o)ud n blood W7/MEV/CDC
  blossome/blossum/blos(t)me n blossom CDC/W7
  blowen vb to blow W7
  cherville n chervil W7
  deflouren vb to deflower W7
  emblayment n emblements W7
  florin n florin W7
  florisshen vb to flourish W7
  flour n flour, flower, best of anything W7
  flourette n floret W7
  foil n foil W7
  folio n folio W7
  milfoil n yarrow W7
  trefoil n clover W7
English: blade n leaf AHD/W7
  bleed, bled vb.str to lose/emit blood AHD/W7
  bless, blest vb.wk.trans to hallow/consecrate by religious rite/word AHD/W7
  blood n fluid circulating in veins/arteries of vertebrates AHD/W7
  bloom n flower AHD/W7
  bloom n wrought iron mass from forge/puddling furnace AHD/W7
  bloom vb to yield/produce flowers W7
  Blooting prop.n Bree calendar's November in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  blossom n flower of seed plant AHD/W7
  blossom vb to bloom W7
  Blotmath/Blodmath/Blommath prop.n Shire calendar's November in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  blow, blew, blown vb.str.intrans to flower, blossom AHD/W7
  cauliflower n garden plant AHD/W7
  chervil n aromatic herb AHD/W7
  cinquefoil n plant of rose family having 5-lobed leaves AHD/W7
  deflower vb.trans to ravish, deprive of virginity AHD/W7
  defoliate vb.trans to deprive of leaves AHD/W7
  effloresce vb.intrans to bloom, burst forth AHD/W7
  emblements n crops, from cultivation, legally belonging to tenant AHD/W7
  enfleurage n extraction of perfume from flowers AHD/W7
  exfoliate vb to cast off scales/splinters/laminae AHD/W7
  ferret n narrow cotton/silk/wool tape AHD/W7
  feuilleton n part of European newspaper/magazine devoted to general interests AHD/W7
  Flora prop.n goddess of flowers (Roman mythology) AHD/W7
  flora n plants, plant life W2I
  floral adj re: flora/flowers AHD/W7
  floret n small flower AHD/W7
  floriated adj having floral form/ornaments AHD/W7
  florid adj covered with flowers AHD/W7
  florigen n hormone/agent that promotes flowering AHD/W7
  florin n gold coin struck in Florence AHD/W7
  florist n one who sells flowers AHD/W7
  -florous adj.sfx having/bearing flowers AHD/W7
  flour n finely ground wheat meal AHD/W7
  flourish vb to thrive, grow luxuriantly AHD/W7
  flower n blossom, inflorescence AHD/W7
  foil n plant leaf AHD/W7
  foliage n mass of plant leaves AHD/W7
  folio n leaf, esp. of book/manuscript AHD/W7
  folium n thin layer in metamorphic rocks AHD/W7
  kingsfoil n healing herb in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  milfoil n yarrow: Eurasian composite herb AHD/W7
  millefleur n background of (lit. 1000) small plants/flowers AHD
  perfoliate adj having basal part united around stem AHD/W7
  -phyll n.sfx leaf AHD/W7
  -phyllous adj.sfx having leaves/leaflets/leaf-like parts AHD/W7
  podophyllin n bitter resin from May apple root AHD
  portfolio n portable case for papers/drawings AHD/W7
  trefoil n clover AHD/W7
Scots English: bluid/blude n blood CDC
  blume n bloom CDC
Old Frisian: blæm/blam n bloom CDC
  bled n blade CDC
  blēda vb to bleed CDC
  blōd n.str.neut blood GED
  blōia vb to blow: bloom CDC
Frisian: bloed n.neut blood ASD
  bloeyen vb to blow: bloom ASD
North Frisian: blomme n bloom CDC
  blot/blöt n.neut blood ASD
  blöye vb to blow: bloom ASD
Old Dutch: bloed n.neut blood ASD
  blosem n blossom ASD
Middle Dutch: bloeme n bloom CDC
Dutch: blad n blade CDC
  bloed n.neut blood ASD
  bloeden vb to bleed ASD
  bloeijen vb to blow ASD
  bloem n.fem bloom CDC
  bloesem n.masc blossom ASD
  kervel n.fem chervil ASD
Old Saxon: blad n blade CDC
  blōd n.str.neut blood GED
  blōjan vb to blow: bloom ASD
  blōmo n bloom CDC
Middle Low German: blat n blade CDC
  blōme n bloom CDC
  blos(s)em n blossom CDC
  blōt n fruit, blossom CDC
  blöt n blood CDC
Low German: blad n blade CDC
  blood n blood CDC
Old High German: blāt n blast, blowing ASD
  blat n blade W7
  bluoen vb to bloom W7
  bluojan/bluo(ha)n vb to blow: bloom ASD
  bluoma n.fem bloom CDC
  bluomo n.masc bloom CDC
  bluot n fruit, blossom CDC
  bluot n.str.neut blood GED
  bluotan vb to bleed ASD
  kervila/kerfola n.fem chervil W7/ASD
Middle High German: blat n blade CDC
  bloust n blossom CDC
  bluome n.masc/fem bloom CDC
  bluon/blü(ej)en vb to blow: bloom ASD
  bluot n fruit, blossom CDC
  bluot n.neut blood ASD
  kërvele n.fem chervil ASD
German: Blatt n blade CDC
  blühen vb to blow: bloom ASD
  Blume n.fem bloom CDC
  Blut n.neut blood ASD
  Blüte n flower CDC
  bluten vb to bleed ASD
  Kerbel n.masc chervil ASD
Old Norse: blóm n.neut bloom LRC
Old Icelandic: blōð n.str.neut blood GED
Icelandic: blað n blade CDC
  blessa/ble(t)za vb to bless ASD
  blōð n.neut blood ASD
  blōm n.neut bloom CDC
  blōmi n.masc bloom CDC
  blōmstr n.masc blossom ASD
  blōt n.neut sacrifice ASD
  blæða vb to bleed CDC
  kerfill n.masc chervil ASD
Danish: blod n.neut blood ASD
  blomme n bloom CDC
  blomst n flower CDC
  blöde vb to bleed ASD
  kiörvel n.masc/fem chervil ASD
Swedish: blad n blade CDC
  blod n.neut blood ASD
  blomma n.fem bloom CDC
  blomster n.neut blossom ASD
  blöda vb to bleed ASD
  kyrfvel n.masc chervil ASD
Gothic: bleiþs adj kind, merciful ASD
  bleiþyan vb to have mercy ASD
  blōma n bloom RPN
  bloþ n.neut blood GED/IEW
Crimean Gothic: *blut/plut n.neut blood CGo/GED
Latin: caerefolium n.neut chervil ASD
  effloresco, efflorescere vb to effloresce W7
  floreo, florēre vb to blossom, flourish W7
  flōrēscō, flōrēscere vb to blossom, begin to flourish W7
  floridus adj blooming, flowery W7
  flōs, flōris n.masc flower, blossom RPN
  foliatus, foliata, foliatum vb.ptc having leaves W7
  folio n.neut.abl in leaves W7
  folium n.neut leaf W7
  millefolium n.neut milfoil W7
  quinquefolium n.neut with five leaves W7
  trifolium n.neut with three leaves W7
Vulgar Latin: florio, florīre vb to bloom W7
Late Latin: defloro, deflorāre vb to deflower W7
  defolio, defoliāre, defoliātus vb to defoliate W7
  exfolio, exfoliāre, exfoliātus vb to exfoliate, strip of leaves W7
  -florus sfx flowering, blossoming W7
New Latin: Flora n.fem Flora W7
  flora flora, plants of a region W7
  folium n.neut leaf, page of a manuscript W7
  perfoliata n.fem herb having leaves pierced by stem W7
  -phyllum sfx leaf W7
  -phyllus sfx having leaf-like parts W7
Portuguese: fôlha n foil TLL
Spanish: hoja n foil TLL
Old French: flor n.fem flower W7
  flour n.fem flower W7
  foil n.masc foil W7
  foillet n.masc.dim small foil W7
  milfoil n.fem milfoil W7
Middle French: blee n grain W7
  cincfoille n.masc cinquefoil W7
  deflorer vb to deflower W7
  emblaement n.masc space sown with grain W7
  emblaer vb to sow with grain W7
  fleur n.fem flower W7
  florin n.masc florin W7
  florir, florissé vb to flourish W7
  flour n.fem flower W7
  flouret n.fem.dim small flower W7
  foille n.fem foil W7
  fuellage n.masc foliage W7
  passefleur n.fem pasqueflower W7
  trefeuil n.masc clover W7
French: blé n grain, wheat LRC
  chèvrefeuille n.masc honeysuckle, lit. goatleaf LRC
  feuille n.masc foil TLL
  feuillet n.masc leaflet, sheet of paper W7
  feuilleton n.masc soap; feuilleton W7
  mille-fleur(s) n millefleur AHD
Old Italian: fiore n.fem flower W7
  fiorino n.masc florin W7
Italian: cabolfiore n.masc cauliflower W7
  cavolo n.masc cabbage W7
  fiore n.masc flower W7
  fioretto, fioretti n.masc little flower W7
  foglia n foil TLL
  portafòglio n.masc wallet, portfolio W7
  portare vb to carry W7
Greek: φύλλον n.neut leaf RPN
  -phyllos afx leaf, leaves W7
Sanskrit: phal vb to burst, blossom ASD
Tocharian B: pilta n leaf RPN
Tocharian A: pält n leaf RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
abl=ablative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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