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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 6. bhel-   'to speak, bell, bellow, resound'

Semantic Fields: to Speak, Talk; Loud; Sound (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bealcian/bælcian vb to belch W7/CDC
  bellan vb to bell, bellow W7
  bylgean/bylgian vb to bellow CDC/W7
Middle English: baulen/bawlen vb to bawl, bark W7/CDC
  belchen/belken vb to belch W7
  belle n bell W7
  bellen vb to bell W7
  bel(le)wen/belowen vb to bellow CDC
English: bawl vb to yell, cry out loudly/unrestrained AHD/W7
  belch vb to expel gas from stomach through mouth AHD/W7
  bell n hollow metallic device that rings/vibrates when stuck AHD/W7
  bell vb.intrans to make resonant baying/bellowing sound AHD/W7
  bellow vb to roar with deep sound (like a bull) AHD/W7
Dutch: bel n bell TLL
Old High German: bellan vb to bellow W7
German: bailen vb to bawl, bark CDC
  bellen vb to bellow ASD
Old Norse: belja vb to bellow ASD
  bjalla n.fem bell LRC
Icelandic: baula n cow CDC
  baula vb to bawl/bellow CDC
Swedish: böla vb to bawl/bellow CDC/ASD
  båla vb to roar CDC
Latin: baubari vb.dep to bawl, bark CDC
Middle Latin: baulo, baulare vb to bawl, bark CDC
Lithuanian: bal̃sas n.masc voice LRC
  bylóti, bylója, bylójo vb to say LRC
Sanskrit: bhāsate vb to talk W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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