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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bheld-   'to hit, poke'

Semantic Field: to Hit, Strike, Beat

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: bolt n.masc bolt: arrow AHD
Middle English: bolt n bolt W7
  bolten/bulten vb to bolt CDC
English: bolt n wood/metal locking bar/pin AHD
  bolt n large crossbow/catapult arrow AHD/W7
  bolt vb.intrans to dart, start/move suddenly W7
  bolt vb.trans to fasten/secure with bolt(s) W2I
Scots English: bou(l)t/bowt vb to bolt CDC
W-Germanic  
Middle Dutch: bolt n bolt: arrow CDC
Dutch: bout n.masc bolt CDC/ASD
Middle Low German: bolte(n) n bolt, fetter, roll of linen CDC
Low German: bolte n bolt, fetter, roll of linen CDC
Old High German: bolz n bolt CDC
Middle High German: bolz n.masc bolt: arrow ASD
  bulzen vb to bolt: go off like arrow CDC
German: Bolz(en) n.masc bolt: arrow ASD
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: bolti n.masc bolt: arrow ASD
Icelandic: bolti n bolt: pin, roll of linen CDC
Danish: bolt n bolt: pin, band CDC
Baltic  
Lithuanian: beldÄ—ti vb to beat W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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