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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bheleg-   'to shine, glisten'

Semantic Field: to Shine, Glisten


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bǣl n flame, funeral pyre W7/ASD
  blāc/blǣc adj bleak, white, shining W7/CDC
  blācern/blǣcern n lantern RPN
  blæc adj/n black; ink W7/CDC
  blǣc(e)an vb to bleach W7/CDC
  *blanc/blanca n poetic white/gray horse CDC
  blencan vb to blink W7
  blīcan vb to shine ODE
Middle English: blak/blac adj black W7/MEV
  blake/bloke adj bleak, white, shining CDC/ODE
  blanch/blank adj blank CDC
  blanke/blonke adj blank CDC
  blanket/blonket n blanket W7/CDC
  bla(u)nche adj blanched CDC
  bla(u)nchen vb to blanch W7/CDC
  blechen vb to bleach W7
  blek(e) adj bleak; black W7/CDC
  blenchen/blinchen vb to blench W7/CDC
  blenken vb to blink W2I
  blīkan vb to shine CDC
  enflamen vb to inflame W7
  flaum(b)e n flame W7
  fleume n phlegm W7
  fulgent adj fulgent W7
  fulminaten vb to fulminate W7
English: black adj extremely dark AHD/W7
  blacken vb to darken, make black LRC
  Blackroot prop.n vale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  blacksmith n one who shapes/forges iron with hammer/anvil AHD
  blanch vb to whiten, remove color AHD/W7
  blank adj white, colorless AHD/W7
  blanket n woven fabric used as bed covering AHD/W7
  bleach vb to remove color/stains AHD/W7
  bleak adj.obs/dial wan, pale, pallid, without color AHD/W2I
  bleak vb.obs to bleach W2I
  blench vb.intrans to flinch/draw back/turn aside due to lack of courage AHD/W7
  blink vb to deceive (obs.); twinkle; look/glance/glimpse W2I/ODE
  conflagrant adj blazing, burning AHD/W7
  conflagration n fire AHD/W7
  deflagrate vb to burn with sudden/sparkling combustion AHD/W7
  flagrant adj glowing, flaming AHD/W7
  flambé vb to drench with liquor and ignite AHD
  flambeau n flaming torch AHD/W7
  flamboyant adj having wavy curves suggesting flames AHD/W7
  flame n glowing gaseous part of fire AHD/W7
  flamingo n aquatic bird with long neck/legs AHD/W7
  flammable adj subject to easy ignition/rapid burning AHD/W7
  fulgent adj dazzlingly bright AHD/W7
  fulgurate vb.trans to emit (lightning) flashes AHD/W7
  fulminate vb to utter/send out with denunciation AHD/W7
  inflame vb to kindle, set on fire AHD/W7
  Phlegethon prop.n river of fire in Hades (Greek mythology) LRC
  phlegm n one of 4 humors in early physiology AHD/W7
  phlegmatic adj re: phlegm AHD
  phlogiston n former hypothetical principle of fire (as material substance) AHD/W7
  phlox n American annual/perennial herb with variously coloured flowers AHD/W7
Scots English: blonk adj blank CDC
Old Frisian: blīka vb to shine CDC
Middle Dutch: blinken vb to blink; shine, glitter ODE
  Vlaminc n Fleming W7
Dutch: blaken vb to burn, scorch, blacken CDC
  blakeren vb to scorch, blacken CDC
  blank adj blank, shining CDC
  blecken vb to bleach CDC
  bleek adj bleak CDC
  blijken vb to look, appear ODE
  blinken vb to blink; shine W2I
  vlam n flame TLL
Old Saxon: blēk adj bleak, white, shining ODE
  blīkan vb to shine CDC
Middle Low German: black n ink CDC
  blaken vb to blacken, burn with much smoke CDC
  blank adj blank, shining CDC
  blēk adj bleak CDC
Low German: black n ink CDC
  blek adj bleak CDC
  verblekken vb to scorch, blacken CDC
Old High German: bla(c)h adj black W7/CDC
  blanch adj blank, white W7
  bleichēn vb to bleach CDC
  bleih adj bleak, white, shining ODE
  blīhhan vb to shine CDC
Middle High German: black n ink CDC
  blanc adj blank, shining, bright CDC
  bleich adj bleak CDC
  bleichen vb to bleach CDC
  blīcan vb to grow bleak CDC
German: blaken vb to blacken, burn with much smoke CDC
  blank adj blank, bright, shining CDC
  blanko adj blank, plain LRC
  bleich adj bleak CDC
  bleichen vb to bleach, grow bleak CDC
  blinken vb to blink; shine, flash, twinkle W2I
  Flamme n.fem flame LRC
Old Norse: bleikr adj bleak, white, shining ODE
  blekkja vb to impose on W7
  blika/blíkja vb to shine, gleam, twinkle ODE
Icelandic: blakkr adj black ASD
  blakkr n poetic horse/steed CDC
  bleikja vb to bleach CDC
  bleikr adj bleak CDC
  blek n ink CDC
  blekkja vb to deceive CDC
  *blincan vb to blink; twinkle CDC
  blīk(j)a vb to shine CDC
Danish: blak adj black, dark CDC
  blank adj blank, shining CDC
  bleg adj bleak CDC
  blege vb to bleach CDC
  blinke vb to blink, wink; twinkle ODE
  blæk n ink CDC
  flamme n flame TLL
Swedish: black adj black, dark, grayish CDC
  blank adj blank, shining CDC
  blek adj bleak CDC
  bleka vb to bleach CDC
  blinka vb to blink, wink; twinkle ODE
  bläck n ink CDC
  flamma n flame TLL
Latin: conflagrans, conflagrantis adj/vb.ptc burning W7
  conflagratio, conflagrationis n.fem a burning together W7
  conflagro, conflagrare, conflagratus vb to burn W7
  deflagro, deflagrare, deflagratus vb to burn down W7
  flagrans, flagrantis adj/vb.ptc burning, glowing W7
  flagro, flagrare vb to burn, glow W7
  flamma n.fem flame W7
  flammo, flammare vb to flame, set on fire W7
  flammula n.fem little flame W7
  fulgens, fulgentis adj/vb.ptc shining W7
  fulgeo, fulgēre vb to shine W7
  fulgur, fulgor n.neut lightning W7
  fulguro, fulgurare, fulguratus vb to flash with lightning W7
  fulmen, fulminis n.neut lightning, a thunderbolt W7
  fulmino, fulmināre, fulminātus vb to flash/strike with lightning W7
  inflammo, inflammare vb to ignite W7
  Phlegethon n.masc Phlegethon W7
  phlox n.fem flower W7
Middle Latin: blancus adj blank CDC
  blanketus/blanchetus n blanket CDC
New Latin: phlox n.masc genus of flowers W7
Portuguese: branco adj blank CDC
  chama n flame TLL
Spanish: blanco adj blank CDC
  flamenco n.masc a Spanish dance W7
  llama n flame TLL
Old French: blanc(he) adj blank W7
  blanchir vb to blanch, make white CDC
  blanket n blanket CDC
  blankete n.fem blanket W7
  flambe n.fem flame W7
  flamber vb to flame AHD
  flamble n.fem flame W7
  flamboyer vb to flame W7
Middle French: enflamer vb to inflame W7
  flambeau n.masc torch W7
  flamme, flambe n.fem flame W7
French: blanchet n blanket CDC
  blanchir vb to blanch CDC
  flambeau n.masc torch W7
  flamboyant adj re: flame W7
  flamboyer vb to flame, be ablaze W7
  flamme n.fem flame W7
Old Occitan: blanc adj blank CDC
Italian: bianco adj blank CDC
  fiamma n flame TLL
Old Church Slavonic: blagъ adj good RPN
Greek: Phlegethōn prop.n.masc Phlegethon W7
  phlegein vb to burn W7
  phlegma n.neut flame, inflammation, phlegm W7
  φλέγω vb to burn, blaze RPN
  phlogizein vb to set on fire W7
  phlogistos, phlogiston adj inflammable W7
  phlox, phlogos n.fem flame W7
Sanskrit: bhárgas- n splendor, radiance RPN
  bhrāj vb to shine CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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