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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bheng̑h-, bhn̥g̑h-, adj. bhn̥g̑hú-s   'fat, thick, dense'

Semantic Fields: Thick (in Dimension); Thick (in Density)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English: bahuvrihi n nominal compound with non-compositional meaning AHD
  pachycephalosaur n herbivorous dinosaur with thick domed skull AHD
  pachyderm n nonruminant hoofed mammal with thick skin AHD/W7
  pachysandra n evergreen woody trailing plant, used as ground cover AHD/W7
  pachytene n 3rd stage of prophase of meiosis AHD
Old High German: bungo n clod, lump RPN
Old Norse: bingr n heap W7
Old Icelandic: bunki n heap, pile RPN
New Latin: pachysandra n.fem genus of evergreen plants W7
French: pachyderme n.masc thick-skinned animal, elephant W7
Latvian: bieza adj thick LRC
  bìezs adj thick RPN
Greek: pachydermos adj thick-skinned W7
  παχύς adj thick, fat, massive RPN
  pachys adj thick W7
  παχύτης n.fem thickness LRC
Hittite: pa-an-ku-uš pron all, whole RPN
Sanskrit: baṁhate vb to grow, to increase RPN
  bahú-ḥ adj much, great, large RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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