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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bher-   'to bear, bring, carry'

Semantic Fields: to Bear, Carry; to Bring

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: biru, berid vb to bear GED/RPN
Irish: brith n birth CDC
Gaelic: bréith n birth CDC
Welsh: hebrwng vb to accompany W7
English  
Old English: ān-boren adj only-born, only-begotten ASD
  bǣr n.fem bier W7/ASD
  bearm n.masc lap, bosom LRC
  bearn n.neut bairn LRC
  be(o)ran, bær, bǣron, boren vb.str.IV to bear, suffer, give birth RPN/ASD
  be(o)rþor/borþor/byrþor n childbirth RPN/ASD
  *berewe/bearwe n barrow CDC/W7
  *berewe n barrow CDC
  byre n birr, storm, strong wind RPN
  byre n.str.masc son GED
  byrðen/berðen/byrðyn n.fem burden W7/ASD
  forberan vb.str to forbear W7/ASD
  gebyrd n birth CDC
  gebyrd-dæg n.str.masc birthday CDC
  offrian vb.wk to offer W7/ASD
  un-baren/un-boren adj unborn GED/ASD
Middle English: barew/bar(e)we n barrow W7/CDC
  barm n lap MEV
  barn(e)/bern n bairn W7/MEV
  bar(r)ow/barowe n barrow CDC
  be(e)re/beer n bier W7/CDC
  bere-bag n bag-bearer (pejorative re: Scots) MEV
  beren vb to bear W7
  bir(r)/byr(re)/bur(re) n birr, following wind W7/MEV/CDC
  birthdai/bitheday n birthday CDC
  birth(e)/berth n birth W7/CDC
  bore n wave W7
  born adj born W7
  burde/burthe n birth CDC
  burden/byrthen n burden W7/MEV
  byrde/byrth(e) n birth CDC
  circumference n circumference W7
  deferren/differren vb to defer W7
  differen vb to differ W7
  ferret n ferret W7
  fertile adj fertile W7
  forberen vb to forbear W7
  fortune n fortune W7
  furet n ferret W7
  offren vb to offer W7
  preferren vb to prefer W7
  profren vb to proffer W7
  referren vb to refer W7
  suffren vb to suffer W7
  transferren vb to transfer W7
English: afferent adj bearing/conducting inward AHD/W7
  amphora n jar/vase with large oval body/narrow neck/two handles AHD/W7
  anaphora n repetition for rhetorical/poetic effect AHD/W7
  Anborn prop.n Ithilien ranger in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  bairn n child, baby W7
  barrow n handcart, wheelbarrow AHD/W7
  bear, bore, born(e) vb.str to carry: support and move AHD/W7
  bier n framework for carrying AHD/W7
  birr n force, onward rush (e.g. of wind) AHD/W7
  birth n emergence of new individual from body of mother AHD/W7
  birthday n day/anniversary of one's birth W7
  bore n tidal flood with high abrupt front AHD/W7
  born adj brought into existence by birth W7
  burden n load, something carried AHD/W7
  burly adj strong, heavy, muscular AHD
  circumference n perimeter of circle AHD/W7
  confer vb to compare AHD/W7
  defer vb to refer for decision AHD/W7
  defer vb.trans to delay, put off AHD/W7
  diaphoresis n perspiration AHD/W7
  differ vb.intrans to be unlike/distinct in form/nature/characteristics AHD/W7
  efferent adj conducting outward from AHD/W7
  euphoria n feeling of elation/well-being AHD/W7
  Fairbairn prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  -fer n.pfx one/thing that bears AHD/W7
  feretory n reliquary, receptacle for saints' relics AHD
  ferret n partially domesticated often albino European polecat AHD/W7
  fertile adj producing/bearing fruit in large quantity AHD/W7
  Firstborn prop.n the Elves in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  forbear, forbore, forborne vb.str to endure, bear with AHD/W7
  fortuitous adj occurring by chance AHD/W7
  fortune n hypothetical force/personified power determining events/issues AHD/W7
  furtive adj surreptitious, done by stealth AHD/W7
  furuncle n boil, local skin swelling/infection AHD/W7
  furunculosis n condition involving multiple furuncles AHD
  infer vb to derive as conclusion from facts/premises AHD/W7
  metaphor n word/phrase used instead of another to suggest likeness/analogy AHD/W7
  offer vb to sacrifice, present as act of worship/devotion AHD/W7
  ommatophore n movable stalk ending with (snail) eye AHD
  opprobrium n something that brings disgrace AHD/W7
  paraphernalia n property controlled by married woman AHD/W7
  periphery n perimeter of circle/other closed curve AHD/W7
  pheromone n chemical secreted by animal to influence others AHD
  -phore n.pfx carrier AHD/W7
  -phoresis n.pfx transmission AHD/W7
  phosphorus n phosphorescent substance/body AHD/W7
  prefer vb.trans to promote/advance to rank/position AHD/W7
  proffer vb to offer, tender, present for acceptance AHD/W7
  refer vb to regard/classify/think of within general group/category AHD/W7
  suffer vb to submit to, be forced to endure AHD/W7
  telpher n light car suspended from/running on aerial cables AHD/W7
  tocopherol n oily fat-soluble phenolic compound AHD/W7
  transfer vb to transport, convey to another person/place/situation AHD/W7
  unborn adj not (yet) born W7
  vociferate vb to clamor, cry out loudly AHD/W7
Scots English: bairn n child, baby W7
  bir/be(i)r/bere/bur(r) n birr CDC
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: barm-bracco n lap-dog ASD
  bera vb to bear GED
  berd/berth n birth CDC
  berde/berthe n.fem burden ASD
  bēre n.fem bier ASD
  bern n.neut bairn ASD
  offria vb to offer ASD
Dutch: baar n.fem bier ASD
  baren vb to bear CDC
  berrie n barrow CDC
  emmer n bucket TLL
  geboorte n birth CDC
Old Saxon: bāra n.fem bier ASD
  barm n.masc lap, bosom ASD
  barn n.neut bairn ASD
  beran vb to bear GED
  burðinnia n.fem burden ASD
  giburt n birth CDC
Old Low German: offron vb to offer ASD
Old High German: bāra n.fem bier ASD
  barm n.masc lap, bosom ASD
  barn n.neut bairn W7/ASD
  beran vb to bear GED
  burdi n.fem burden ASD
  eimbar n jug, bucket, vessel KDW
  giburt n birth CDC
  opfarōn vb to offer ASD
Middle High German: bar n.masc bairn: son; man GED
  bāre n.fem bier ASD
  bere n barrow CDC
  bürde n.fem burden ASD
  burren vb to rush, roar, whir RPN
  geburt n birth CDC
  rade-ber n wheelbarrow CDC
German: Bahre n.fem bier ASD
  Bürde n.fem burden ASD
  Eimer n bucket TLL
  Geburt n.fem birth CDC
  Geburtstag n.masc birthday LRC
  Radberge/Radbürge n wheelbarrow CDC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: baðmr n.masc tree LRC
  barn n.neut bairn LRC
  bāra n wave W7
  bera vb to bear, give birth, endure LRC
  borr/burr n.masc bairn: son ASD
  burðr n.masc birth LRC
  byrðr n.fem load, burden LRC
  byrr n birr, favoring wind W7
Old Icelandic: barmr n.masc lap, bosom ASD
  bera vb to bear GED
  burr n.str.masc son GED
  ū-borinn adj unborn GED
Icelandic: barar/börur n bier CDC
  barmr n.masc lap, bosom ASD
  barn n.neut bairn ASD
  bera vb to bear CDC
  *byrðr/burðr n birth CDC
  byrðr/byrðl n.fem burden ASD
  byrr n birr CDC
  offra vb to offer ASD
Danish: baar(e) n bier ASD/CDC
  bare vb to bear CDC
  barn n.neut bairn ASD
  byrd n birth CDC
  byrde n.fem burden ASD
  bör n birr CDC
Old Swedish: byrþ n birth CDC
Swedish: barn n.neut bairn ASD
  bör n birr CDC
  börd n birth CDC
  börda n.fem burden ASD
  bår n bier, barrow CDC
  bära vb to bear CDC
  ämbar n bucket TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: baíran vb.str.IV to bear, give birth LRC
  bairan vb to bear, carry, endure, give birth GED
  barms n.masc lap, bosom ASD
  barn n.str.neut bairn LRC
  barniskei n.wk.fem childish thing LRC
  *baur n.masc bairn, son, one born GED/RPN
  baurþei n.fem burden ASD
  fra-bairan vb to endure ASD
  gabaurþs n birth CDC
  un-baurans adj unborn ASD
Crimean Gothic: *baarn/baar n bairn: boy, son CGo
Italic  
Latin: adferō, adferre vb to bring/carry to W7/ELD
  afferens, afferentis adj/vb.ptc consequent, that comes with W7
  amphora n.fem amphora W7
  auferō, auferre vb to bear off, carry away ELD
  circumferentia n.fem circumference W7
  circumfero, circumferre vb to carry around W7
  confero, conferre vb to bring together W7
  defero, deferre vb to bring (down) W7
  differo, differre vb to be different, go in another direction W7
  differro, differre vb to postpone, be different W7
  effero, efferre vb to elevate, carry out W7
  -fer sfx which brings/produces W7
  feretrum n bier, litter CDC
  ferō, ferre vb to bear, carry, give birth GED
  fertilis adj fertile W7
  fors, fortis n.fem luck, chance, fortune W7
  fortuitus adj random W7
  fortuna, fortunae n.fem chance, fortune LRC
  fur n.masc thief W7
  furō, furere n to rage, be furious RPN
  furo n.masc thief, ferret W7
  furtivus adj furtive, secret, concealed W7
  furtum n.neut theft W7
  fūrunculus n.masc.dim furuncle, sucker; pilferer, petty thief W7/ELD
  infer adj the lowest W7
  infero, inferre vb to bring/carry in/into W7
  metaphora n.fem metaphor W7
  offero, offerre vb to offer, present W7
  opprobrium n.neut opprobrium W7
  opprobro, opprobrare vb to reproach W7
  praefero, praeferre vb to prefer, put in front W7
  probrum n.neut reproach W7
  refero, referre vb to refer, report, bring back W7
  suffero, sufferre vb to suffer, bring under W7
  tranfero, transferre vb to carry through W7
  vōciferor, vōciferari, vōciferatus vb.dep to vociferate W7
Vulgar Latin: furittus n.masc.dim little thief W7
  sufferio, sufferire vb to suffer W7
Late Latin: anaphora n.fem anaphora, figure of style W7
  diaphoresis n.fem dissipation by perspiration W7
  peripheria n.fem periphery W7
Medieval Latin: paraphernalia n.neut.pl private property of married woman W7
New Latin: euphoria n.fem joy, euphoria W7
  -phoresis sfx act of carrying W7
  -phorus sfx bearing W7
  phosphorus n.masc phosphorus W7
Portuguese: furão n ferret TLL
Spanish: hurón n ferret TLL
Old French: biere n bier AHD
  offrir vb to offer W7
  poroffrir vb to offer W7
  souffrir vb to suffer W7
Anglo-French: profrer vb to offer, present W7
Middle French: circumference n.fem circumference W7
  deferer, defferer vb to bring down to someone W7
  differer vb to postpone, be different W7
  fertile adj fertile W7
  fortune n.fem chance, fortune W7
  furet n.masc ferret W7
  inferer vb to infer W7
  metaphore n.fem metaphor W7
  périphérie n.fem periphery W7
  préférer vb to prefer W7
French: bière n bier CDC
  efférent adj to be carried outward W7
  -fère adj.sfx (production) W7
  furet n ferret TLL
  furtif adj furtive W7
  furtive adj.fem furtive W7
  offrir vb to offer W7
Old Occitan: bera n bier CDC
Italian: furetto n ferret TLL
Baltic  
Lithuanian: beriù vb to strew, pour out GED
  bérnas n son, boy RPN
Latvian: bērns n.masc bairn LRC
  bẽrt vb to strew, pour out GED
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: berǫ/beru vb to bear GED
  burja n storm RPN
  sъborъ n.masc counsel, meeting LRC
Albanian  
Albanian: bie vb to bring GED
  bir n son GED/RPN
  burrë n man RPN
Hellenic  
Mycenaean: pere vb to bear GED
Homeric Greek: φέρτε vb.2.pl.imp carry! GED
  φέρω vb to bear, bring, endure LRC
Greek: amphiphoreus n.masc amphora W7
  amphoreus n.masc amphora W7
  anapherein vb to refer, carry back W7
  anaphora n.fem act of carrying back, reference W7
  diaphorein vb to dissipate by perspiration W7
  diaphorēsis n.fem diaphoresis W7
  euphoria n.fem vigour W7
  euphoros adj healthy, vigorous W7
  théretron n bier, litter CDC
  metapherein vb to transfer W7
  metaphora n.fem metaphor W7
  parapherna n.neut.pl goods a bride brings over/above dowry W7
  periphereia n.fem periphery W7
  φέρειν vb to bear, carry, endure, give birth GED
  phernē n.fem dowry W7
  phorein vb to carry, wear W7
  phoreus n.masc bearer W7
  phorēsis n.fem act of carrying W7
  -phoros sfx carrying W7
  φορτίον n load, burden, child in womb RPN
  φῡ́ρω vb to mix RPN
  phōsphoros adj light-bearing W7
Late Greek: anaphora n.fem anaphora, figure of style W7
Armenian  
Classical Armenian: bari adj good LRC
Armenian: berem vb to bear GED/RPN
  buṙn n violence RPN
Iranian  
Old Persian: barantiy vb.3.pl they bear GED
Avestan: baraiti vb to bear GED
Indic  
Vedic: bhárti vb to bear GED
Sanskrit: bíbharti vb to bear GED
  bhárati vb to bear, suffer, give birth GED/RPN
  bháriman- adj/n supporting; family RPN
  bhuráti vb to stir, move rapidly RPN
  bhurváṇi-ḥ adj restless, excited RPN
  bhṛtá-ḥ vb.pass.past.ptc borne, brought, carried RPN
  bhri vb to bear ASD
  bhriti n birth CDC
  bhriyáte vb.pass to be borne RPN
Tocharian  
Tokharian: pär- vb to bear GED
Tocharian A: pärtär vb.3.sg bears GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
2=2nd person
3=3rd person
IV=class 4
adj=adjective
dep=deponent
dim=diminutive
fem=feminine (gender)
imp=imperative (mood)
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pass=passive (voice)
past=past (tense)
pfx=prefix
pl=plural (number)
prop=proper
ptc=participle
sfx=suffix
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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