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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 6. bher-   'to cook, bake, fry, roast'

Semantic Fields: to Cook; to Bake; to Roast, Fry


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: frien vb to fry W7
  fritour n fritter W7
English: cuchifrito n small deep-fried pork cube AHD
  fricandeau n larded veal glazed/roasted in own juices AHD/W7
  fricassee n pieces of meat stewed in gravy AHD/W7
  frieze n heavy durable course wool fabric W7
  frise n frieze AHD/W7
  frit n calcined/partly fused materials used to make glass AHD/W7
  frittata n open-face omelet AHD
  fritter n fried/sauteed batter containing fruit/meat AHD/W7
  frizz vb to form (hair) into tight little curls AHD/W7
  fry vb to cook in fat AHD/W7
  soffritto n seasonings/vegetables for Italian dishes AHD
  sofrito n seasonings/vegetables for Spanish/Latin American dishes AHD
German: Frikassee n.neut fricassee LRC
  frittieren vb to fry LRC
Latin: frīgo, frīgere, frictus vb to fry, roast W7
Portuguese: frito adj fried TLL
Spanish: frito adj fried TLL
Old French: frire vb to fry/roast W7
Middle French: fricassée n.fem fricassee W7
  fricasser, fricassé vb to fricassee W7
  friture n.fem act of frying W7
French: frise n.fem frise W7
  friser vb to curl W7
  frit adj fried TLL
Italian: fritta n.fem frit W7/CID
  fritto adj fried TLL
Greek: phrygein vb to fry/roast W7
Sanskrit: bhrjjati vb to roast W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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