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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: bherək̑-, bhrēk̑-   'to shine, glitter'

Semantic Field: to Shine, Glisten

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: brægd adj bent ASD
  brægd n.masc fraud, deceit ASD
  bredan vb to braid CDC
  bregdan, brægd, brugdon, brogden vb to braid, weave, pull, throw, vibrate RPN
  brīdel n.masc bridle W7/ASD
  ūpbrēdan vb to upbraid, reproach W7/ASD
Middle English: bra n brae W7
  bra(i)de/brayd n sudden movement, grievous onslaught MEV
  braiden/breiden/brayden vb to braid CDC
  breme/breem n bream W7/CDC
  breyden vb to braid, weave, move suddenly W7
  bridel/brydel n bridle W7/MEV
  upbreyden vb to upbraid, scold severely W7
English: brae n hillside, esp. along river AHD/W7
  braid vb.trans to twist (three/more strands) together AHD/W7
  bream n European freshwater cyprinid fish AHD/W7
  bridle n headstall/bit/reins with which horse is guided AHD/W7
  upbraid vb.trans to find fault with, criticize severely AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: brida vb to braid, weave, pull, throw, vibrate ASD
Dutch: brasem n bream CDC
  breidel n.masc bridle ASD
Old Saxon: bregdan vb to braid, weave, pull, throw, vibrate ASD
  bressemo n bream CDC
Low German: breiden vb to braid, weave, pull, throw, vibrate ASD
Old High German: brahsima/brahsina n bream W7/CDC
  brettan vb to draw (a sword) W7
  brittil n.masc bridle ASD
Middle High German: brasem/brahsen n bream CDC
  brehen vb to twinkle, sparkle RPN
German: Brachse/Brasse n.fem bream LRC
  Brachsen/Brassen n.masc bream CDC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: bragða, bragðað vb to move, stir LRC
  brā n eyelash W7
  bregða vb to throw, draw (sword), move quickly LRC
Old Icelandic: brjá vb to sparkle, flicker RPN
Icelandic: bregða vb to braid, weave, pull, throw, vibrate ASD
Danish: brasen n bream CDC
Old Swedish: braxn n bream CDC
Swedish: braxen n bream CDC
Italic  
Old French: bresme n bream CDC
French: bréme n bream CDC
Hellenic  
Greek: phorkon adj white; wrinkled W7
Indic  
Sanskrit: bhrā́śate vb to shine, glitter RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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