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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: bhlē-   'to bleat, weep, howl'

Semantic Fields: Sound (n); to Cry, Weep; Loud


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bellan vb to roar W7
  blǣtan vb to bleat W7
  blagettan/blǣgettan vb to cry, shriek, scream IEW
Middle English: *blaren/bloren vb to blare, cry, weep CDC
  bleren vb to blare W7
  bleten vb to bleat W7
  feble adj feeble W7
English: blare vb to sound loud/strident AHD/W7
  bleat vb to emit natural cry of sheep/goat AHD/W7
  feeble adj markedly lacking in strength AHD/W7
Scots English: blair/bleir vb to cry, weep, blare CDC
Middle Dutch: blaren/blaeren vb to low, bleat, blare CDC
  bleten vb to bleat ASD
Dutch: blaren vb to bleat, blare IEW
  bleeten/blāten vb to bleat ASD
Middle Low German: blarren vb to blare CDC
  bleten vb to bleat CDC
Low German: blar(r)en vb to blare CDC
  bleten vb to bleat CDC
Old High German: blāzan vb to bleat ASD
Middle High German: blāzen vb to bleat CDC
  blēren/blerren vb to cry, bleat, blare IEW
German: bellen vb to bark, boom LRC
  blarren/blärren vb to blare CDC
  blässen vb to bleat IEW
  blätzen vb to bleat CDC
  blöken vb to bleat, bellow CDC
  plär(r)en vb to blare, bawl IEW
Latin: bālō, bālāre vb to bleat CDC
  flebilis adj wretched, lamentable W7
  fleo, flēre vb to weep W7
Old French: feble adj feeble W7
Doric: βληχή n.fem bleating, wailing CDC
Greek: βληχάομαι vb to bleat LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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