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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhles-   'to shine, glitter'

Semantic Field: to Shine, Glisten


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: blæse/blase n.fem blaze: fire, torch W7/ASD
Middle English: blase n blaze W7
  blemiss(h)en vb to blemish W7/CDC
English: blaze n intensely burning fire AHD/W7
  blaze n white spot GED/IEW
  blaze vb to flame, flare up, burn brightly W7
  blemish vb.trans to sully, spoil by flaw AHD/W7
  blesbok n S African highveld antelope with facial blaze AHD/W7
Scots English: bleeze/blese n blaze: fire, torch CDC
Afrikaans: bles n blaze: spot W7
  blesbok n blesbok, lit. blaze (spotted) buck W7
Middle Low German: blas n blaze: fire, torch CDC
Low German: blas n blaze: fire, torch CDC
Old High German: blasros n blaze: spot (on forehead of horse) GED/IEW
  blassa n blaze: spot (on forehead of horse) GED
Middle High German: blas n.neut blaze: fire, torch RPN/ASD
German: blass adj pale W7
  Blässe n.fem paleness LRC
  Blesse n.fem blaze: spot LRC
Old Norse: blesóttr n blaze: spot (on forehead) LRC
Middle French: blesmir, blesmissé vb to make white W7
French: blêmir vb to grow pale/white CDC
Old Occitan: blesmar vb to soil, blemish CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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