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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhleu-   'to bloat, swell, blow up; flow'

Semantic Fields: to Grow; to Blow; to Flow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: affluent adj affluent W7
  blout adj bloat, soft, flabby W7/ODE
  blust(e)ren vb to bluster; wander about aimlessly W7/CDC
  flum n river W7
  flux n flux W7
  influence n influence W7
  reflux n reflux W7
  superfluous adj superfluous W7
English: affluent adj copious, flowing in abundance AHD/W7
  bloat adj puffy, bloated W7
  bloat n swelling of rumen/intestinal tract AHD
  bloat vb to swell, puff up RPN
  bluster vb to roar, pound, thunder, be noisy IEW
  confluent adj flowing/coming together AHD/W7
  effluent n/adj (something) flowing out AHD/W7
  effluvium n invisible emanation AHD/W7
  efflux n effluence AHD/W7
  fluctuate vb to ebb/flow in waves AHD/W7
  fluent adj fluid, capable of flowing AHD/W7
  fluid adj easily yielding to pressure AHD/W7
  flume n ravine/gorge with running stream AHD/W7
  fluor n fluorite AHD/W7
  fluoride n binary fluorine compound AHD/W7
  fluorine n pale yellow halogen gas AHD/W7
  fluorite n calcium fluoride (mineral) W7
  flush n sudden flow AHD/W7
  fluvial adj re: stream/river AHD/W7
  fluviomarine adj re: seafloor deposits near river mouth AHD
  flux n flow of fluid from body AHD/W7
  influence n ethereal fluid flowing from stars, affecting actions of men AHD/W7
  influenza n acute contagious viral disease AHD/W7
  influx n inflow, flowing in AHD/W7
  mellifluous adj flowing/sweetened with honey AHD/W7
  phallus n penis W7
  phloem n complex tissue in higher plant vascular system AHD/W7
  phlyctena n small blister/vesicle AHD
  reflux n ebb, back-flow AHD/W7
  solifluction n soil creep over frozen ground AHD
  superfluous adj extra, exceeding what is needed/sufficient AHD/W7
East Frisian: blüstern vb to bluster CDC
Middle Low German: blüsteren vb to bluster W7
Low German: blustern/blistern vb to flutter about anxiously CDC
German: Phloem n phloem W7
Old Norse: blautr adj soft, bloat; wet, soaked ODE
  blotna vb to bloat, become soft/moist ODE
Icelandic: blautr adj soft, bloat CDC
Swedish: blöt adj soft, bloat CDC
Gothic: miliþ n.neut honey W7/GED
Latin: affluo, affluere vb to flow (in)to/abundantly W7
  confluo, confluere vb to flow together, be confluent W7
  effluo, effluere, effluxi, effluxus vb to flow out W7
  effluvium n.neut effluvium, act of flowing out W7
  flō, flāre, flāvi<>M>, flātus vb to blow W7
  fluctuō, fluctuāre, fluctuāvi, fluctuātus vb to fluctuate, float on waves, be agitated W7
  fluctus, fluctūs n.masc flow, wave W7
  fluidus adj fluid, re: liquid W7
  flūmen, flūminis n.neut flume, river LRC
  fluō, fluere, flūxī, fluxus vb to flow RPN
  fluvialis adj fluvial W7
  fluvius n.masc river W7
  fluxus, fluxūs n.masc flux, flow W7
  influo, influere, influxi, influxus vb to flow in W7
  phallus n.masc phallus W7
  superfluo, superfluere, superfluxi, superfluxus vb to overflow W7
  superfluus adj superfluous, overflowing, running over W7
Late Latin: influxus n.masc influx W7
  mellifluus adj mellifluous, flowing with honey W7
Medieval Latin: influentia n.fem influence W7
  refluxus n.masc reflux W7
New Latin: fluor n.masc fluor W7
Old French: affluent adj affluent AHD
Middle French: affluent adj affluent W7
  flux n.masc flux, flow W7
  influence n.fem influence W7
French: fluide adj fluid, re: liquid W7
Italian: influènza n.fem power, influence W7
Old Church Slavonic: bljujǫ vb to vomit RPN
Greek: φαλλός n.masc phallus LS
  φλέω vb to teem, abound RPN
  φλοιός/φλόος n.masc (tree) bark LS
  φλύζω vb to seethe, overflow, boil over RPN
  φλύω vb to seethe, overflow, boil over RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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