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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhrenk-, bhronk-   'to bring'

Semantic Field: to Break

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Middle Breton: ham-bronc vb.fut will lead GED
Middle Cornish: hem-bronk vb.fut will lead GED
Welsh: he-brwng vb to bring, lead GED
English  
Old English: brengan vb.wk to bring GED
  bringan vb to bring GED
Middle English: bringen vb to bring W7
English: bring, brought vb.str to lead/carry/cause to come toward (place of reference) AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: brenga/branga vb.wk to bring GED/ASD
  bringa, brochte vb.wk to bring GED
Frisian: bringe vb to bring ASD
Middle Dutch: brenghen vb.wk to bring GED
Dutch: brengen vb to bring ASD
Old Saxon: brengian/bringan vb.wk to bring GED/ASD
Old High German: bringan, brāhta vb.wk to bring GED
Middle High German: bringen vb to bring ASD
German: bringen vb to bring ASD
N-Germanic  
Danish: bringe vb to bring GED
Swedish: bringa vb to bring GED
E-Germanic  
Gothic: *breihan vb to bring GED
  briggan vb.wk.I to bring GED
Tocharian  
Tokharian: pränk- vb to take away GED
Tocharian B: prānk- vb to take away GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fut=future (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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