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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: dak̑ru-   'tear (from the eye)'

Semantic Field: Tear (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: dēr n tear IEW
Welsh: deigr n tear IEW
Old English: tæhher n.masc tear W7
  tēar/teagor n.masc tear W7
Middle English: tear n tear(drop) W7
English: lacrimal/lachrymal adj re: tears, tear gland AHD/W7
  tear n (drop of) fluid secreted by lacrimal gland AHD/W7
Old Frisian: tār n.masc tear ASD
Dutch: traan n tear TLL
Old High German: zahar/zaher n.masc tear W7/ASD
German: Träne n tear TLL
Old Icelandic: tār n.neut tear LRC
Icelandic: tár n.neut tear ASD
Danish: taare n tear TLL
Swedish: tår n tear TLL
Gothic: tagr n.neut tear LRC
Old Latin: dacruma n.fem tear LRC
Latin: lacruma/lacrima n.fem tear W7
Medieval Latin: lacrimalis adj lacrimal W7
Middle French: lacrymal adj lachrymal W7
Lithuanian: ašarà n tear LRC
Latvian: asara n (bitter) tear LRC
Homeric Greek: δάκρυ n.neut tear LRC
  δακρύω vb to weep, shed tears LRC
Armenian: artasuk' tears LRC
Avestan: asrūazan- vb.ptc showering tears LRC
Sanskrit: áśru n tear LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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